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Age of Jefferson

Mr. D's "Age of Jefferson" Study Stack

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "democratic" mean? Ensuring that all people have the same rights
What does the term "laissez faire" mean? to let alone
What does the term "judicial review" mean? It is the power of the Supreme Court to decide whether laws passed by Congress are constitutional
Who was the third President of the United States? Thomas Jefferson
Who was President Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury who helped Jefferson cut government expenses? Albert Gallatin
Who was President Jefferson's first Secretary of State? James Madison
What steps did President Jefferson take to limit the power of the federal government? 1. He cut the federal budget and reduced the size of government departments. 2. He cut the size of the army and navy and also cut military spending 3. He asked Congress to repeal the Whiskey Tax and the Naturalization Act.
What Federalist policies did President Jefferson continue? President Jefferson kept the Bank of the United States and continued the policy of paying off the state debts that the federal government had taken over under President Washington
How did the Federalists keep control of the federal courts after they lost the Election of 1800? Before Jefferson and the victorious Republicans took over, the Federalists passed a law increasing the number of judges and President Adams, while still in office, appointed Federalists to those positions.
What precedent did "Marbury v. Madison" set? It set the right of "judicial review" for the Supreme Court
Who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the "Marbury v. Madison" case that established the right of "judicial review"? John Marshall
What law was declared unconstitutional in the "Marbury v. Madison" case by right of judicial review? The Judiciary Act of 1789
Why was the Mississippi River important to western farmers in the late 1700s and early 1800s? There were few roads east and they used the river to ship their crops south to New Orleans and then bring them to cities on the Atlantic coast.
What was Pinckney's Treaty? It was a treaty signed by Spain and the United States in 1795. In the treaty, Spain allowed American farmers to ship their crops down the Mississippi to their city of New Orleans, drop them off, and wait for their crops to be loaded onto ships
What country gained control over New Orleans and Louisiana shortly after we signed Pinckney's Treaty? France by a secret treaty with Spain
Why was President Jefferson alarmed when he learned of the treaty that gave Louisiana to France? He feared that Napoleon might attempt to build an empire in North America
What Caribbean country successfully rebelled and became independent from France in the early 1800s? Haiti
Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture? He was a self-educated former slave that led the slave revolt against French rule in Haiti
Why did President Jefferson try to buy New Orleans and West Florida from France? He wanted to make sure that American farmers could always ship their goods through the port of New Orleans
Why did France offer to sell all of Louisiana to the United States? 1. Napoleon's dream of a North American empire ended when the French lost control of Haiti 2. Napoleon needed money to finance his wars of conquest in Europe
How much money did the United States pay to France for all of Louisiana? $15 million
What did the Louisiana Purchase do the size of the United States? It doubled the size of the United States
What constitutional power enabled President Jefferson to buy Louisiana from France in 1803? "The power to make treaties"! According to Article II of the Constitution, Presidents have the power to make treaties with foreign nations.
According to the Constitution, who must approve treaties made by the President? The Senate by a two-thirds margin
Who were the two explorers that Jefferson sent to study the new lands along with 50 other men in 1804? Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
What information did President Jefferson ask Lewis and Clark to study during their exploration of Louisiana? They were to study the climate, the soil, the mineral resources, the plant and wildlife, and to learn about and establish trade relations with the Native Americans living there.
Who was Sacajawea? She was a Shoshone who knew the region well and acted as the guide and translator for the Lewis and Clark expedition
What is a "continental divide"? It is a mountain ridge that separates river systems that flow in opposite directions
How many "continental divides" are there in the Continental United States? Two- The Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains
Who was Zebulon Pike? Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Purchase from 1805-1807. Pike's Peak in Colorado is named in his honor.
What body of water did Lewis and Clark reach at the end of their western journey? The Pacific Ocean
How did American trade grow in the early 1800s? Americans traded around the World
Where were the Barbary States? They were the North Africans nations along the Mediterranean coast
Why did President Jefferson go to war with Tripoli in 1801-1805? The ruler of Tripoli demanded an increase in tribute from the United States to protect American ships from attacks in the Mediterranean from the Barbary Pirates
What is "tribute"? a gift, payment, or a bribe payment
What was the outcome of the Barbary War? The ruler of Tripoli signed a treaty promising not to interfere with American ships
How did renewed war in Europe affect American overseas trade? 1. American trade increased 2. France and Britain violated American neutrality and captured American ships and cargoes 3. Britain "impressed" several thousand American sailors
What is "impressment"? Britain's act of seizing men from American ships or villages and forcing them to serve in the British navy
Why did British warships "impress" American sailors? The British navy needed more men for its war with France
What is an "embargo"? a ban on trade with another country
What was the Embargo Act (1807)? A law passed by Congress that forbade Americans to import or export with foreign countries
What was the purpose of the Embargo Act? President Jefferson hoped that the Embargo Act would hurt France and Great Britain by cutting off our trade with them. He hoped they would decide to respect our neutrality in order to resume trade with the U.S.
Why did the Embargo Act fail? While it did hurt Great Britain and France, it hurt our economy more
What law did Congress pass to replace the repealed Embargo Act in 1809? The Nonintercourse Act
What was the Nonintercourse Act of 1809? It allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France
What is "nationalism"? Pride or devotion to one's country
What were the four major causes of the War of 1812? The four F.I.N.E. causes are: 1. Frontier Problems 2. Impressment and Problems at Sea 3. Nationalism 4. Expansionism
What two parts of the United States were in favor of war with Britain? The South and the West
What were people who wanted to go to war with Great Britain known as? War Hawks
Who was the most outspoken War Hawk in Congress? Henry Clay from Kentucky
How did the increased number of settlers affect the Native Americans on the frontier? Some tribes protested to the federal government while other tribes attacked settlements
How did the Prophet and Tecumseh try to stop white settlement? They united many frontier tribes in the effort to resist American settlement of the frontier
Why was the North against declaring war on Great Britain? Many merchants wanted good relations with Great Britain to restore profitable trade.
What battle eventually led President Madison to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Great Britain? The Battle of Tippecanoe
Why did the War Hawks pressure President Madison to ask for a declaration of war? War Hawks became convinced that the British were arming Tecumseh's Indian alliance.
What lands did the War Hawks hope to add to the United States by fighting a war with Britain? Canada and Florida (Spain was Britain's ally!)
What problems did the Americans face in preparing for war with Britain in 1812? We had a small navy, a small untrained army, inexperienced officers, and little money
What part did Tecumseh play in the War of 1812? Tecumseh's Indian alliance sided with the British and helped defeat the American invasion of Canada. His allies in the South, the Creeks, attacked frontier settlements there. Tecumseh later was killed during the Battle of Thames.
What was the result of the Battle of Thames? The British and their Indian allies were defeated by Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison's American forces. Tecumseh was killed and his confederation fell apart without his leadership.
What was the result of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend? Gen. Andrew Jackson's American forces defeated the Creeks
How did Dolley Madison help preserve the nation's heritage during the War of 1812? Britain successfully captured and burned the city of Washington, D.C. As Dolley Madison escaped the city, she gathered up important government papers and a portrait of George Washington.
What battle was America's greatest victory in the War of 1812? The Battle of New Orleans- British forces lost more than 2000 soldiers while American forces lost seven
Who became the hero of the Battle of New Orleans? General Andrew Jackson
What was the Hartford Convention? Northern delegates met in Hartford, Connecticut in 1814 to discuss leaving the United States and forming their own nation if the war continued. While delegates debated, the Treaty of Ghent was signed ending the war.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent? Britain and the United States agreed to return matters to the way they were before the war. Nothing was adjusted or settled.
In 1818, what line of latitude was agreed on, by Britain and the U.S., to form the border between the United States and Canada? 49 degrees North latitude
What has the War of 1812 also been called? The Second War for Independence
What impact did the U.S. Navy have on the war at sea during the War of 1812? The few victories that were won did little to win the war. Americans were unable to end the British blockade
What impact did the War of 1812 have on the United States? 1. More respect for the U.S. government both here and abroad 2. U.S. industry became stronger due to necessity during the British blockade during the war 3. War heroes Jackson and Harrison became future Presidents 4. Increased pride and unity in US
Who were the first four Presidents of the United States in order? 1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson 4. James Madison
Created by: rdewald