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Final Exam Key Terms

vigilante self-appointed law keepers
subsidy grants of land or money
transcontinental railroad a railroad line that spanned the continent
travois small sleds
tepee cone-shaped tents made of buffalo skins
reservation land set aside for Native Americans to live on
open range unfenced land
cattle drive the herding and moving of cattle over long distances
vaquero Spanish word for cowhand or cowboy
cow town settlement at the end of a cattle trail
cattle kingdom the region dominated by the cattle industry and its ranches, trails, and cow towns
homesteader settlers who acquired free land from the government
sod a surface layer of earth in which the roots of grasses tangle with soil
sodbuster Plains farmers
sooner people who had already sneaked onto the land before the Oklahoma Land Rush
grange groups of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, and other events
farm cooperative groups of farmers who pool their money to make large purchases of tools, seed, and other supplies at a discount
inflation general rise in prices
patent a document giving someone the sole right to make and sell an invention
assembly line a manufacturing method in which a product is put together as it moves along a belt
entrepreneur someone who sets up new businesses to make a profit
corporation businesses owned by many investors
monopoly a company that controls most or all other business in a particular industry
trust a group of corporations run by a single board of directors
free enterprise the system in which privately owned businesses compete freely
collective bargaining unions negotiate with management for workers as a group
urbanization the rapid growth of city populations
tenement buildings divided into many tiny apartments
settlement house a center offering help to the urban poor
steerage large compartments that usually held cattle
assimilation the process of becoming part of another culture
anarchist a person who opposes all forms of government
civil service a system that includes most government jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, and the military
primary an election in which voters, rather than party leaders, choose their party's candidate
recall a process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office
initiative a process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature
referendum a way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law
graduated income tax a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income
Muckraker became a term for a crusading journalist
trustbuster a person working to destroy monopolies and trusts
conservation the protection of natural resources
national park a natural area protected and managed by the federal government
suffragists people who worked for women's right to vote
prohibition a ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol; a total ban on alcoholic drinks
lynching murder by a mob
parochial schools schools sponsored by a church
anti-Semitism prejudice against Jews
isolationism avoiding involvement in other countries' affairs
imperialism building empires by imposing political and economic control over peoples around the world
spheres of influence (SOI) areas where another nation has economic and political control
militarism the glorification of the military
nationalism pride in one's nation or ethnic group
stalemate deadlock
trench warfare soldiers fire on one another from opposing lines of dugout trenches
propaganda the spread of information designed to win support for a cause
mobilize to prepare for war
illiterate unable to read and write
convoy a large group of merchant vessels sailing together
communism an economic and political system based on the idea that social classes and the right to private property should be eliminated; an economic and political system in which the state owns the means of production and a single party rules
armistice a halt in fighting that allows peace talks to begin
self-determination the right of a group to decide its own form of government
reparations payments to cover war damages
deported returned to their home countries
disarmament the reduction or limitation of military armaments
anarchists people who oppose all organized government
overproduction a situation in which the supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand
bankruptcy financial failure caused by a company's inability to pay its debts
totalitarian state a nation in which a single party controls the government and every aspect of people's lives
fascism a political system based on militarism, extreme nationalism, and blind loyalty to the state and its leader
aggression a warlike act by one country against another without cause
appeasement a policy of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war
total war conflict involving not just armies but entire nations
rationing the act of setting limits on the amount of scarce goods people can buy
intern temporarily imprison
braceros Mexican laborers
island hopping American forces would capture some Japanese-held islands and go around others
kamikaze missions suicide pilots crashed their planes into American ships
genocide the deliberate attempt to wipe out an entire nation or group of people
war crimes wartime acts of cruelty and brutality that are judged to be beyond the accepted rules of war and human behavior
popular vote
Electoral College
Created by: 14jfish