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Physio 1 Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Define homeostasis? Stable operating conditions in internal environments
Give 3 examples of homeostasis? (1) sensory receptor cells- brain (2) integrators- brain and spinal cord which direct impulse (3) effectors- muscles and glands which perform action
How much fluid in ICF? 2/3
How much fluid in ECF? 1/3
What is the ECF made of? 1/4 plasma & 3/4 interstitial fluid
Define negative feedback? Keeps things constant. Most homeostatic control mechanisms
Define positive feedback? Does NOT result in homeostasis. Response change the variable even more in same direction
What ions are high OUTSIDE the cell? What direction do they move? Na, Ca, Cl . Moves IN
What ions are high INSIDE the cell? What direction do they move? K, Mg. Moves OUT
Define depolarization? How is it done? More positive or less negative. Done by: K channels close, Ca comes in, Na comes in
When Na is balanced by a negative charge by Cl or a protein, this is called? Gibbs-Donan equilibrium
Define osmosis? Diffusion of water from high concentration to low contraption until water is equally distributed
K and Mg are balanced by? Proteins and phosphates
Na is balanced by? Cl an Hco3
Define diffusion? Movement of ions from high concentration to low concentration until ions are equally distributed....no energy required
Peripheral proteins are found in where? ICF
Integral proteins are found where? Both ICF & ECF....channel proteins
In the cell membrane ___ soluble pass easily Lipid (CO2, O2, Fatty acids, steroids)
In the cell membrane ___ soluble must have a transported in order to cross Water (transporters: glucose, amino acids, Ca, H)
Define secondary active transport? Transport of 2 or more salutes is coupled. INDIRECTLY uses ATP. Ex: Na/K pump
Define primary active transport? Move against gradient (low to high). DIRECTLY uses ATP.
Define simple diffusion? Moves down gradient. NO energy required.
Define facilitated diffusion? Moves down gradient. Uses a membrane carrier. ( saturation, stereo specificity, competition)
Define co-transport? Symport. Form of secondary active transport. Same direction as Na (up hill)
Define counter transport? Antiport. Form of secondary active transport. Opposite direction of Na. One moving in for exchange of another
Define electrengenic ? Potential difference with low Na outside and high K inside. Ex: PMCA, SERCA, H K ATPASE
Define HYPOtonic? Solution with lower concentration of solutes = more water. Water ENTERS the cell. Lower concentration of ions in solution than in cell
Define HYPERtonic? Solution with greater concentration of solutes= less water. Water LEAVES the cell. Greater concentration of ions in solution than in cell.
Define hyperpolarization? Make membrane potential more negative. Two channels open: K leak and voltage gated K
Define threshold potential? Is less negative than resting
Define refractory period? Either ABSOLUTE or RELATIVE. No AP can occur.
Depolarization occurs first followed by... Repolarization, hyperpolarization, back to resting
Resting membrane potential is established by? Diffusion potential
What ion is responsible for upstroke? Voltage gated Na (in nerve and skeletal)
Na/K pump is an example of what kind of protein? Inegreal protein
Define absolute refractory period? Overlaps with almost the entire duration of the AP. Basis is closure of the inactivation gates of Na channels in response to depolarization.
Define relative refractory period? Begins at the END of absolute refractory period and overlaps primarily with the period of hyperpolarization after potential. Basis is higher K conduction than is present at rest.
Nodes of Ranvier have high or low resistance? Low membrane resistance
What is a gap junction and where are they found? A low resistance pathway bw cells. Found in cardiac m and smooth m. Very fast conduction.
Define chemical synapse? Gap bw the presynaptic cell and postsynaptic cell (synaptic cleft)
Excited neurotransmitters ___ postsynaptic cell Depolarize
Inhibitory neurotransmitters ___ postsynaptic cell Hyperpolarize
Action of botulinus toxin? Blocks AcH release from presynaptic terminal
Action of curare? Competes with AcH for receptors on motor end plate
Action of neostigmine? AcH-E (anticholinesterases)inhibitor
Action of hemicholinium? Blocks reuptake of choline into presynaptic terminal
Define EPSP - Excitatory postsynaptic potential? Depolarize the postsynaptic cell, bring close to threshold, close to firing an AP
How is a EPSP produced? By opening Na and K channels
Examples of EPSP? AcH, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, glutatmate, serotonin
Define IPSP - Inhibitory postsynaptic potential? Hyperpolarize postsynaptic cell, taking membrane potential AWAY from threshold and AWAY from firing an AP
How is IPSP produced? By opening C1 channels
Examples of IPSP? Aminobutyric acid, GABA, glycine
Criteria for being a neurotransmitter? Formed in presynaptic terminal then must be degraded.
Define serotonin? Found in brain and GI tract. Precursor to melatoin in pineal gland.
Define Glutamate? Excitatory. In spinal cord and cerebellum. 4 types (3 ionotropic, 1 metabotropic)
Define ionontropic? Type of glutamate. Ligand gated channels, ex: NMDA
Define metabotopic? Type of glutamate. Coupled by a G protein to ion channels
Define Gylcine? Inhibitory. Brain stem and spinal cord. Increase cl conductance.
Define GABA? Inhibitory. No metabolic function. Linked to Cl channel and K channel
Define Nitrus oxide? Inhibiroty. In GI and CNS. No packaging. Histamines.
Skeletal M is under what control and innervated by what kind of neuron? Voluntary control, innervated by a motor neuron
Define excitation contraction coupling? Between AP in muscle fiber and contracting muscle fiber
Define THICK filaments? Myosin, 2 heads & 1 tail, 2 binding sites: actin & ATP
Define thin filaments? Actin, tropomyosin, troponin
Define scaffold proteins? Support proteins. Ex: dystrophin, titin, nebulun, actin
Define tropomysion? Prevent binding of myosin to actin
Define troponin C? Initiates Contraction
Define troponin I? Helps tropomyosin INHIBIT binding of myosin to actin
Define troponin T? Connects tropomyosin to TROPONIN complex
Define A bands? Contain THICK filaments. Thin and thick may overlap here=cross bridge formation.
Define I bands? THIN filaments only. On either side of A bands.
Define Z disk? Runs along middle of I band
Define sarcomere? Base unit of contractile muscle
Define bare zone? THICK filaments only. Center of sarcomere
Define M line? In bare zone, connects thick
Define T-tubules? Carry depolarization from AP at muscle cell surface to interior fibers
Define SR? Site of Ca storage
Define SERCA? Stores Ca in SR/pumps out Ca in SR when needed
What are the 3 things you need for excitation contracting coupling? (1) AP (2)Release of CA (3)Tension
Define isometric? Tension, NO change in length
Define isotonic? Tension, change in length
Is smooth m striated? No
Where can smooth m be found? GI, bladder, uterus
Created by: wizdumbslp