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7th History Final

Washington's Precedents Did not run for a third term as President, was not a career politician, Presidential inauguration, formed a Presidential cebinent
Judiciary Act Set up a federal court system, 1 chief justice, and 5 associate justices
Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury, Federalist, supported Britain, federal government, industry
Hamilton's Economic Plan The government would buy back all federal and state bonds, government would take all the states debt by reissuing new bonds, would establish a bank of the United States to store the bonds
Whiskey Rebellion Increased tax on liquor, western Pennsylvania farmers tarred and feathered tax collectors who came to collect taxes
French Rebellion The French, like the Americans, fought for liberty and equality, grew very violent, overthrew monarch, led to execution of thousands of French citizens, drew deep political lines in America
Neutrality Proclamation April, 1793, states that the United States would not support either side in the was, forbade Americans from aiding either Britain or France
Jay's treaty Britain must pay damages for seized American ships, Britain had to give up the forts it held in the west, Americans had to pay debts long owed to British merchants
Washington's View on Foreign Policy Did not oppose foreign trade, did reject alliances that could drag the country into war
Faction Opposing groups within parties
Thomas Jefferson First Secretary of State, democratic republican, supporter of France, state governments, farming, 3rd President-1800
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Democratic Republicans Supporters of Jefferson, otherwise known as Republicans, small farmers, artisans, and some wealthy planters
Federalists Hamilton and his supporters who wanted a strong federal government, merchants and manufacturers, some southern planters
John Adams He was the 2nd president, a Federalist. was responsible for passing Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after XYZ Affair, passing of the Alien+Sedition Acts severely hurt popularity of Federalist party+himself
Frigate Fast moving ships with many cannons, Adams strengthened the navy to keep America out of war
Alien Act President could expel and foreigner thought to be a threat to the country, increased the number of years to become a citizen, used to be 5, now 14
Sedition Act Citizens could be fined or jailed if they criticized the government officials
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Jefferson helped pass the document stating that if a state thought a federal law unconstitutional, they could nullify it within the state borders and ignore the law
Suffrage The right to vote-Growing amount because of more common voters
Election of 1824 & the Corrupt Bargain John Quincy Adams, Jackson, Henry Clay, The "Corrupt Bargain" Clay withdraws, House elects Adams, Clay named Secretary of State, Result - No winner for electoral college, goes to the House of Reps, Clay withdraws, Adams wins, Clay gets Secretary of State
John Quincy Adams Son of John Adams, former Secretary of State, won the election of 1824 with the corrupt bargain
Andrew Jackson Known as the champion of the common people, won the Presidential election of 1828, frontiersman,
Whigs Supported Adams and his plans for national growth, formerly known as National Republicans, Eastern businessmen, Southern planters, former federalists, wanted federal government to spur the economy
Democrats Jackson's supporters - frontier farmers, eastern factory workers, reflects today's democratic party
Caucus System Very undemocratic, a few powerful people in private meetings choosing a parties candidate
Nominating Convention Delegates from all states choose their parties candidate, much more democratic and reflected the growth of democracy
Spoils System The practice of giving government jobs to supporters
Kitchen Cabinent Group of men that Jackson trusted more than his official cabinets, newspaper editors and Democratic leaders, called this because Jackson met with them in the White House Kitchen
Closing of the Bank -Jackson says he’ll veto the renewal charter -Jackson vs. Biddle, Clay, Webster -Clay and Webster push for an early renewal - believe people want the bank and that they would be able to use this issue against him
Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) Highest tariff in the history of the nation
Tariff of 1832 & the Nullification Act Congress passed a tariff in 1832 that lowered the rate slightly, SC was not satisfied, they passed the Nullification Act declaring the new tariff illegal, threatened to secede from the Union if challenged
Worcester vs. Georgia Georgia's actions were declared unconstitutional by trying to make laws for the Cherokee, said Native Americans were protected by the Constitution, States did not have the power to undo government treaties
Indian Removal Act of 1830 Forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi to Oklahoma
Trail of Tears Cherokee's journey west, 15,000 Native Americans sent west of Mississippi to Oklahoma, thousands died
Martin Van Buren Thought government should play a small role in economic affairs, led country to economic depression
Panic of 1837 Worst economic crisis the nation had known, money was loaned and printed, not backed by gold, people tried to exchange it for gold, the banks didn't have any, banks close, people go bankrupt, land prices crash
Depression A period when business declines and people lose their jobs
Mudslinging The use of insults to attack an opponent's reputation
Artisan A skilled worker
Trade Union Artisans in each trade united to form these, called for shorter work day, higher wages, better working conditions
Strike Union workers refusing to do their jobs
Famine A severe food shortage
Nativists Wanted to preserve the Union for native-born, white citizens
Discrimination Policy or attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people
Factory Conditions in 1840's and 1850's Long hours, low wages, uncomfortable, dangerous working conditions, heat and humidity in the summer, cold in the winter, accidents were common
Cotton Kingdom Area of south from Texas to South Carolina with greats extents of cotton plantations
Cotton Gin A cotton cleaning machine that GREATLY increased the production of cotton
Eli Whitney Creator of the cotton gin
Cotton's Effect on Soil The soil would wear out if planted with cotton year after year - farmers needed new land, began to move west
Cotton and The Spread of Slavery Cotton still had to planted and picked by hand, slaves brought profit to planters, used profits to buy more land and slaves, slavery increased as cotton did
South's Economy vs. North's Economy Northerners greatly profited from manufacturing, south from farming and agriculture, south becomes dependent on north for supplies
Missouri Compromise Proposed by Henry Clay, Missouri wanted to join the Union as slave state, then Slave States would have a majority in the Senate, Maine had applied to join the Union, so Clay proposed that Maine join as a free state and Missouri join as a slave state
1848 Mexican Cession Area of land west of the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific Ocean, had to be decided free or slave
Popular Sovereignty The right of people to create their own government
Free Soil Party Formed in 1848, Wanted to keep slavery out of western territories, anti-slavery members of the Democrat and Whig parties
Compromise of 1850 California entered the Union as a free state, divided the rest of Mexican Cession into New Mexico and Utah territories, <-decided slavery by popular sovereignty, ended slave trade in D.C., strict fugitive slave law, settled border between Texas-New Mexico
Uncle Tom's Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, written to show the evils of slavery and injustice of fugitive slave act, opened the eyes of northerners
Kansas-Nebraska Act An act to create two new states that would be decided free or slave by popular sovereignty, addressed the Nebraska Territory, went against the Missouri Compromise which had already outlawed slavery in this area
Border Ruffian Proslavery bands from Missouri who rode into Kansas and battled antislavery forces
Bleeding Kansas Proslavery men raided the town of Lawrence, John Brown decided to strike back, rode to Pottawatomie Creek and murdered five men, led to more and more violence
Republican Party Formed 1854, The new party Lincoln represented, Free-Soilers, Northern Democrats, antislavery Whigs, main goal to keep slavery out of the west
Abraham Lincoln A young lawyer from Illinois, won the 1860 Presidential election without votes from a single southern state
John Brown Famous abolitionist, raided a federal arsenal, hoped to start a slave revolt, failed, captured, sentenced to death
Martyr A person willing to give up his life for his beliefs
Secession and the CSA Believed that an abolitionist had been elected President, first South Carolina, then Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas
Fort Sumter One of the 4 southern forts still held by the Union after the states seceded, in South Carolina, Confederates demanded they surrender the fort, Union commander said no, the south attacked and captured it, the start of the civil war
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederacy, wanted to be military leader and envied Lee
Union's Goal at the Beginning of the Civil War Preserve the Union
Border States States wavering between north and south, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, allowed to keep slaves in order to get them to stay in the north
Martial Law Rule by the army instead of the elected government
Northern Strengths and Weaknesses Strength – Capital, majority of factories, railroads, bigger population, strong navy and many trading ships Weakness – Fighting an offensive war, didn’t know the land, had to take supplies across a bigger distance
Southern Strengths and Weaknesses Strength – defensive war, knew the land, woods for cover, Weakness – economy, few railroads, political problems, smaller population, small navy, small merchant fleet
General Robert E. Lee Commander of Army of Northern Virginia
General George McClellan Appointed commander of the east Union army after Bull Run, very good at training soldiers but very cautious, Lincoln was mad that he did not pursue Lee after Antietam, replaced by Burnside after Antietam
Union Strategies for Winning the War Capture the Mississippi in the west, seize Richmond in the east, blockade southern ports - the Anaconda Plan
Confederate Strategies for Winning the War Hold on until the north got tired of fighting, fight a defensive war, hoped to get help from European allies
Battle of Bull Run Manassas, VA, July 21, 1861, Confederacy pushed Union back, Showed that soldiers needed training and that the war would be long and bloody
Battle of Shiloh Shiloh, near Tennessee River, April 6, 1862, Union was being pushed back 1st day, the 2nd day Union won, during this battle, Union captured Memphis and New Orleans, showed Union’s determination, One of the bloodiest battles, 23,750 causalities
Battle of Antietam Sharpsburg, MD, September 1862, Union officers found a copy of southern battle plans but McClellan was slow to act, Lee attacked the north, over 23,000 causalities, indecisive win, only because the south retreated did the north win
Battle of Fredricksburg Fredericksburg VA, December 1862, stunning win for the south, built wall on top of a hill, strong defensive position
Battle of Chancelorsville Chancellorsville VA, May 1863, Confederacy won but Stonewall Jackson was killed by his own men
Emancipation Proclamation Freed slaves only in the Confederacy, announced September 1862, worked January 1st, 1863
African Americans in the Army prior to 1863 they could not fight in battles, 54th Massachusetts regiment-led an attack on Fort Wagner, almost half the Regiment killed, helped earn respect for African American soldiers
Dangerous Life of a Civil War Soldier Could die in battle any day – new improved weapons with new tactics, long hours, slept on the ground, disease and infections spread quickly, disease killed more than battles, primitive medical practices
Union's Draft Law of 1863 Required all able bodied males between the ages of 20 and 45 to serve in the military if they were able, could avoid this law if they paid $300 of hired someone else to fight for them
Confederacy's Draft Law Men had to fight unless they owned more than 20 slaves
Habeas Corpus The right to be charged or have a hearing before being jailed, Lincoln suspended it during the war and nearly 14,000 were arrested
Inflation Rise in prices and decrease in value of money
Battle of Vicksburg Grant launched a surprise attack on Jackson, Mississippi and attacked Vicksburg from the back, lay siege for six weeks, city was surrendered on July 4, 1863
Battle of Gettysburg Lee invaded the north and was met by Union soldiers, three day battle, Union driven back on first day, Confederacy suffered huge causalities on second day, decisive Union win because of Picket’s charge, last time south would invade the north
Pickett's Charge Lee ordered General George Pickett to lead 15,000 men to charge to Union army, failed miserably, Confederates would never invade the north again
General Ulysses S. Grant Commander of Union army, aggressive total war tactics helped Union win the war
Total War Destroying anything useful to the other army, anything is fair game
General William T. Sherman Was ordered by Grant to burn a path through the south to the Atlantic coast and capture Atlanta, captured Atlanta in September 1864, burned a large part of the city, ripped up railroad tracks, burned barns, factories, homes, and bridges
Election of 1864 George McClellan and Abe Lincoln, main issue – slavery, Lincoln remains President
Appomattox Court House After Richmond fell, Lee and his army retreated here, were trapped here by Union troops, Lee surrendered to the Union army, Grant gave lenient terms of surrender in order to mend the north and south
Impact of the Civil War Thousands dead, cities leveled, ended slavery, millions of dollars spent
Problems in the North After the War Unemployment
Problems in the South After the War Infrastructure ruined, $, 4 million freed slaves with nowhere to go
Freedmen Former slaves who were freed
Freedmen's Bureau A government organization to help freed slaves with clothing, food, education, medical care, etc.
Andrew Johnson Became President after Lincoln was assassinated
Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction Majority of each state had to swear loyalty to the Union, states had to ratify the 13th amendment
Black Codes Laws that severely limited the rights of freedmen, prevented them from gaining and political or economic power
Radical Republicans Big anti-slavery party, wanted harsh and punishing Reconstruction plan, needed to take over congress to implement their own plan, joined forces with the Moderate Republicans
Reconstruction Act of 1867 Divided the south into 5 military districts, to rejoin the Union, the Confederate states had to write new Constitutions and ratify the 14th amendment, required that southern states allow African Americans to vote
13th Amendment Banned slavery everywhere in the United States
14th Amendment You may not discriminate based on race, color, etc.
15th Amendment States could not deny any citizen the right to vote based on color, race, or previous conditions of servitude
Sharecropping People who rented and farmed a plot of land, often lead to a cycle of poverty, many freedmen turned to this after they were freed
Decline in Republican Power Losing power due to corruption, after amnesty act was passed all white southerners voted democratically
Amnesty Act of 1872 Restored the right to vote to almost all white southerners
Rutherford B. Hayes (1876) Elected President in 1876 with a promise to end Reconstruction, removed all remaining federal troops from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina-Reconstruction was over
Poll Tax Voters had to pay a toll before voting
Literacy Test Voters had to read and interpret a section of the Constitution before voting
Grandfather Clause If your grandfather rcould vote before 1/1/1867 (the day the Emancipation Proclamation was passed) then you are exempt from the literacy and poll tax, made sure that all whites could vote
Segregation The legal separation of the races
Plessy vs. Ferguson Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Progressive Era 1898-1917, reformers worked to reduce the power of big businesses, improve social conditions, and clean up political corruption
19th Amendment Gave women the right to vote
Isolationism A President's limited involvement in the world's affairs
Imperialism The policy of powerful countries seeking to control the political and economic affairs of weaker countries or regions
World War I 1914, Central powers; Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman (or Turkish) Empire against the Allied Powers of France, Britain and Russia
Great Depression Stock market crash in 1929 plunged economy into worst slump in history, stock prices fell, workers were laid off, banks closed, people lost life’s savings, lasted through 1930’s
New Deal (1933-1936) Programs instituted by FDR after he was elected. 3 main goals; 1. Relief for the unemployed 2. Plans for economic recovery 3. Reforms to prevent another depression
World War II (1939-1945) Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) vs. Allies (Britain, France, US, Soviet Union, China, etc.) Hitler+Germany invaded Europe, Japan invaded most of Asia. US joined after Pearl Harbor (1941) Atomic bomb dropped on Japan, Holocaust uncovered
Cold War After WWII, the Soviet Union (communism) competed against the US (democracy) for global influence, squared off for 46 years but never faced each other in battle
Civil Rights Movement After WWII, African Americans increased fight for equal rights. Efforts-NAACP, Brown vs. Board of Education, Montgomery vs. AL bus boycott (Rosa Parks), March on Washington (1963), A Civil Rights Act, a Voting Rights Act, an amendment against poll taxes
Martin Luther King Jr. Leader of the Civil Rights Movement, urged nonviolent protests, assassinated in 1968
Created by: cmcg013
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