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1 Histo08

Vocab nucleus artifact cytoplasm cytosol differentiation extracellular morphology ultrastructural intra/extra/intercellular chromatin heterochromatin euchromatin fixation staining (hematoxylin, eosin) eosinophilic basophilic phagocytosis organelle vesicle
Who developed theory of 21 different tissues in late 1700s? Bichat
1838 Who thought up cell theory? Hint, 2 guys, one got cells named after him. Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden
1855 Cellular Pathology published by... Rudolf Virchow
Four basic tissue types: 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscle 4. Nervous
2 basic characteristics of tissues prepared for slides in histology, first is physical: Physical characteristics, cells=size, shape, content, nucleus, origin Tissue=extent, shape, location, # and type of cells, character of surrounding material
Second basic characteristic used to assess cells and tissues: Staining Characteristic bonding with dyes. Hemoglobin binds with eosin
Term for the microscope we used in class: Bright-field light microscope (not transmission electron microscopy)
What does formaldehyde do preserve cells? Cross-links proteins and other sub-cellular structures
What is most common solution of formaldehyde? Formalin, 3.7%
What is used to slice paraffin stiffened tissues? (hint, it's a sharp knife!) microtome
How small can the eye see? 0.2 mm
How small can bright-field see? 0.2 micrometer
How small can scanning electron microscope see? 2.5 nanometer
How small can transmission microscope see? 1 nanometer
Two major divisions of cellular membranes: Cell surface membrane (aka plasma membrane) Intracellular membrane (for organelles)
How did they figure out phospholipid bilayer? There was twice as much of it as there shoulda been...
Peripheral membrane proteins go.... through the cell membrane partway. Integral membrane proteins go all the way through.
The fancy word for the carbohydrates clinging to the proteins and liids of the cellular membrane: glycocalyx
Specialized membrane: microvilli, cilia, stereocilia also types of junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, synapses.
Cytosol Non-particulate region, gel-like, site of enzymatic reactions, structure is complex, based on cytoskeleton
Mitochondria, basics Have their own DNA, proteins are encoded by combination of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Undergo dramatic structure changes for high vs. low energy state.
Mitochondria have enzymes for three processes: Electron transport chain, Krebs cycle, and fatty acid oxidation.
Nucleus Perforated by nuclear pores, continuous with endoplasmic reticulum.
Euchromatin is DNA that is ... In an open configuration, can shift to "Nucleosome" with scaffolding network of proteins (lamins) and regulating proteins (histones).
Heterochromatin is DNA that is... Condensed. Visible as individual chromosomes (mitotic figures), not the same as dead nuclei (pyknotic)
Nucleolus is a recognizable site: non-dividing cells, the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and assembly.
Ribosomes are the sites of translation of ... mRNA into protein. Takes place in the cytoplasm.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is a ... network of anastomosing tubules, continuous with nuclear membrane and golgi apparatus.
Smooth ER has the enzymes for metabolizing... Good stuff! Steroids, drugs, glycogen, and lipids.
Rough ER has ribosomes, to... Transport proteins across membrane during translation from mRNA.
Golgi apparatus functions in directional transport and modifications of... proteins. May add carbohydrates, sort for destination, assembles mature membranes.
Lysosomes Oval, contain degradative enzymes to turn over molecules. Primary at edges of the Golgi, secondary fuse with another vesicle, and residual are all done.
Cytoskeleton 25 nm. Microtubules made of tubulin proteins, polymerizes as needed, moves organelles around, flexes cilia, maintains cell shape.
Other part of cytoskeleton (not microtubules) 5 nm. microfilaments=actin. Major part of contractility of muscle, in all the other cells too.
Other part of cytoskeleton that's not microtubules or microfilaments 10 nm. Intermediate filaments: scaffolding proteins. Other proteins in their family: keratin, lamins, desmin.
What does H&E stain stand for? Hematoxylin (orange/red) and Eosin (bluish-purple).
Intense eosinophilia (pinkness) usually indicates... full of proteins! (there may also be random granules in a white blood cell that stain a bit strongly)
Intense basophilia (purplishness) usually indicates... ribosomal RNA...protein translation!
The blocky edges of an artifactual red blood cell that looks like a mine: crenated
Created by: ceres



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