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ocupation, air, nois

chapters 10 and 11

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA act 1970- Department of Labor
Niosh conducts research on health effects
hazard communication standard year and purpose 1983- MSDS
records of exposure for employees kept for 30 years after leaving the job
normal atmospheric air oxygen percentage 21%
minimum amount of o2 to support life 16%
3 types of air pollutants are organic gases, inorganic gases and aerosols
air pollutant from combustion nitrogen oxide
sulfer oxide and particulates lead to more chronic obstructive lung disease
Carbon monoxide is a significant problem with drivers over periods of exposure
harmful to plants hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, smog, ozone and ethylne
organic gases (examples) hydrocarbons, paraffins, olefms, aromatics, oxygenated hydrocarbons (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids)
primary source of hydrocarbons gasoline as a fuel for motor vehicles
hydrocarbons and drivitabes react with atmospheric chemicals and produce effects associated with photochemical smog
hydrocarbons react with atomic oxygen in presence of sunlight or with ozone to produce aerosols
inorganic gases (examples) oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, carbon monoxide (also ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine)
photochemical smog nitrogen oxide (NOx) from autos
NOx refers to NO and NO2 from autos
NAAQS (Nat'l Ambient Air Quality Standards) 6 particulate matter of 10 microns or less (PM10) ozone (o3) lead (Pb) sulfur dioxide (SO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and NO2
control of particulate matter inertial separator (single cyclone, hight efficiency and multiple cyclone)
single cyclone separator centrifugal force by directing gas in a circular path
wet collection devices spray chambers, cyclone scrubbers and wet filters
spray chambers not very efficient, simple scrubbers
mechanical scrubbers water spray is generated by rotating drum or disk
venturi scrubbers gases passed though tube with low pressure
wet filter spray chambers where the particles are colleted on filters and washed off by spray
baghouse (fabric collector) series of fabric filters.
electrical precipitators use electrostatic fieldby forming gas ions using high voltage corona discharge
afterburner most common methods of removing organic and inorganic gases- acheives total combustion
gas adsorption uses substance like activated carbon to adsorb gases, liuids or solids
gas absorption removes pollutants bydissolving them in a liquid solvent like water, ethanol or benzene- good for removing organic chemicals
standard for PM10 50 micorgrams/m3
cfc's persistance and source remain in stratosphere for 75-110 years - refrigerants, solvents, plastics, aerosol sprays
natural acidity is caused by carbon doixide
high volume (hi-vol) sampling 40-6- cfm through fiberglass or paper filter for 24 hrs. Filter is weighed before and after and can be analyzed.
ozone effect on plants flecks, bleaching, tip burns on conifers
glazing, silvering, bronzing on underside of leaf is caused from PAN (peroxyacyl nitrates)
animals get flouride from air pollution by: ingesting vegetation
particles under 3 microns can reach: lowest part of lung
primary pollutant found in atm in same form as it exists
fugitive emissions emissions which find their way into ambient air with out being vented through a stack
ozone formed by action of sunlight on oxygen (nitrigen oxides and hydrocarbons)
where are earth's anmosphere and photochemiczl oxidants produced? troposphere
turbulence is the wind charachteristic that: most effectively disperses or diles a cloud or plume of pollutants
scrubbers are wet collectors used to remove particles that form as a: fog, mist or dust
exposure to excessive noise Noise Induced Permanent Threshold Shift (not reversible)
Presbycusis associated with age
sociacusis permanent threshold shift due to environmental noise
A-weighted scale decibals (dB) are weighted and are (dBA)
logarithmic increases in sound 3DB increase = double in sound
conductive sound does not enter the auditory canal or inner ear due to blockage (wax, infection, earplugs)
sensoneural sound cochlea or auditory nerve damaged, defect, drug interactions, disease, exposure to excessive sound
temporary thresh hold shift (TTS) short term exposure to lound noises over 100 dB caused by hair cell fatigue (ringing in ear)
Permanent Thresh Hold Shift (PTS) continuous exposure to unsafe sound levels will cause permanent damage
velocity = frequency x wavelength
speed at which sound travels depends on: compressibility and density of the medium
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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