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Semester 2 Review

what is federalism? the belief in a strong central government
why was the constitutional convention called? to revise the articles of confederation
when was the constitutional convention called? may 1787
what had to be added to the constitution in order for all of the states to ratify it? the bill of rights
what is separation of powers? the division of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches
which governmental principle is at work when the constitution says that only the national government can negotiate treaties with foreign nations? federalism
when the senate votes on a treaty that the executive branch has negotiated, which constitutional principle is at work? checks and balances
congress cannot pass a law that would prevent freedom of religion because it would violate which constitutional principle? individual rights
why do tax laws have to go through congress? the founding fathers did not want the power to raise taxes in the hands of a chief executive due to the taxes imposed by king george III prior to the american revolution
why is congress given the power to override a presidential veto? so that it has a check and balance on the power of the president
what powers does the executive branch have? negotiate treaties, veto, nominate judges/ambassadors, and carry out the law
what powers does the judicial branch have? interprets the law
what would congress do it the president was charged with a serious crime? impeach the president
what would happen if 2/3 of congress voted to override a presidential veto and passed a law that violated the bill of rights? the judicial branch would rule that the law is unconstitutional
what rights do the first 10 amendments protect? individual rights and state's rights
what is the supreme law of the land? the constitution
what is the president's cabinet? advisors to the president
what was the whiskey rebellion? a rebellion due to taxes imposed on whiskey
why was the whiskey rebellion important? it proved that the federal government was strong enough to put down rebellion
what was the biggest problem faced by the new government of the u.s.? national debt
what main piece of advice did washington give in his farewell address? remain neutral
what argument did the democratic-republicans make against the alien and sedition acts? it violated the 1st amendment
what precedents did washington set? 2 terms limit and the presidential cabinet
what did the democratic-republicans want for the united states? more powers reserved for the states and an agrarian economy
what did the federalists want for the united states? a strong central government and an industrialized economy
who were the founders of the 2 original political parties? federalists - alexander hamilton democratic-republicans - thomas jefferson
what is the basic reason why political parties were formed in the u.s.? to share ideas and beliefs / a fundamental disagreement on the proper way to interpret the constitution
who wrote the words to the national anthem? francis scott key
why was the louisiana purchase important? it doubled the size of the u.s., beginning westward expansion, and gave the u.s. control of the mississippi river
which court case established the principle of judicial review? marbury v. madison
what was the lewis and clark expedition? an expedition to explore the louisiana purchase and oregon country
who was john marshall? chief justice of the supreme court that helped establish many precedents such as judicial review
why did the war hawks want war with great britain? the british were impressing american sailors
describe the battle of new orleans andrew jackson emerged as a hero due to a great american victory
what were the basic facts of the war of 1812? no territory exchanged, white house was burned, andrew jackson becomes a hero
what were the characteristics of the era of good feelings? it was a period of nationalism
what did the monroe doctrine say? european powers needed to stay out of affairs in the americas
what happened during the trail of tears native americans were forced to move west off of their land
how did andrew jackson's upbringing affect his political beliefs? he grew up poor so he supported efforts to improve the lives of the "common man"
what was the spoil system? rewarding your friends/supporters with positions in government after being elected to the office of the president.
why did jackson want to dismantle the bank of the united states? he felt it was unconstitutional and worked only for the priveleged
what is the name of the reform group that worked to end slavery? abolitionists
what reform movement did dorothea dix help start? she wanted to reform the way the mentally ill were treated
how did the 2nd great awakening influence early reform in the u.s.? it caused people to approach reform with a more open mind
why was the cotton gin an important invention? it made it much easier to remove the seeds from the cotton
how did improvements in transportation change trade in the united states? it made trade cheaper and easier
what were some characteristics of the early industrial revolution? tertile mills located next to rivers and powered by water wheels. young girls and women worked in the mills
what is manifest destiny? the belief that the u.s. was destined to reach the pacific ocean
what caused the mexican war? a border dispute between the u.s. and mexico
what did the treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo say? the rio grande was the border between the u.s. and mexico, and the mexican cession would become territory of the u.s.
why did the united states make the gadsden purchase? for the railroad
what was the main reason that settlers and trappers pushed farther west? more land and resources and the prospect of finding
what caused most of the conflict between native americans and pioneers during westward expansion? white settlers took native american land. in many cases treaties had been signed protecting native land and the settlers ignored these treaties
what did the 3/5 compromise say? 3 out of 5 slaves would count for representation and taxation
why did popular sovereignty become a big issue in the 1850's? to determine whether a state would be free or slave
list the parts of the kansas-nebraska act. 1-nebraska territory was divided into kansas and nebraska 2-each territory would decide the issue of slavery based on popular sovereignty
what was the underground railroad? a network of abolitionists that helped runaway slaves escape
what was the main reason why southerners supported slavery? they felt it was necessary for the health of their economy
list the parts of the missouri compromise missouri was admitted as a slave state and maine was admitted as a free state and all territory north of 36'30° would be free in the future
what did the dred scott decision say about the legal status of slaves? slaves were considered property and not people
why did the compromise of 1850 cause controversy? the fugitive slave act forced northerners to turn in escaped slaves
what effect did the book uncle tom's cabin by harriet beecher stowe have on northerners before the civil war? it showed many northerners the cruel side of slavery and caused support for abolition to increase.
what were the results of john brown's raid? the raid was a failure
how did the election of 1860 reflect the nation at that time? it showed that the country was deeply divided due to each section of the country voting for their candidate. lincoln in the north and pacific coast, breckinridge in the deep south
what happened as a result of abraham lincoln's election? south carolina seceded and was followed shortly by other southern states
what was the bloodiest battle of the whole civil war? gettysburg
what advantages did the north have in the civil war? more men, railroads, supplies
what advantages did the south have in the civil war? leadership, only had to keep the war going as a stalemate
what was the north's strategy at the beginning of the war? anaconda plan
what was the south's strategy at the beginning of the war? invade the north and force an armistice
what did the emancipation proclamation say? all slaves in confederate states were free
why was vicksburg an important victory for the union? it gave them control of the mississippi river
why was the battle of gettysburg a turning point in the civil war? it turned back the confederate advance
what is an example of total war from the u.s. civil war? sherman's "march to the sea"
why did grant offer lee generous terms when lee surrendered? he knew that the process of reconstruction lay ahead
what was life like for free blacks living in the u.s. after the civil war? harsh–many of their rights were severely restricted
what were some characteristics of southern reconstruction? the freedmen's bureau helped set up schools in the south as well as provide food, clothing, and help former slaves find jobs. many whites did whatever they could to intimidate blacks and make sure they did not have the same freedoms as other citizens
what was the main reason why groups like the ku klux klan formed? to intimidate blacks so that they did not vote or pursue roles in government
who led the south during radical reconstruction? the radical republicans
which amendment guarantees equal protection under the law? 14th amendment
which amendment abolished slavery? 13th amendment
how did southern states try to get around the 15th amendment? poll taxes, tests, etc.
what were the provisions of the compromise of 1877? rutherford b. hayes was given all disputed electoral votes
secede to withdraw
import to bring in
suffrage the right to vote
compromise both sides agree to meet in the middle
amend to change
export to take out
nullifications to void
states' rights granting more power to the states as opposed to the federal government
judicial review the power of the judicial branch to determine the constitutionality of laws
sectionalism loyalty to one's section of the country as opposed to the nation
urbanization the growth of urban areas, people move from countryside to cities
Created by: 437