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Exam 1 PNS

Neuroscience PNS

Most common neuronal cell? Multipolar
T/F: ALL neurons exhibit a cell body AND a axon? T
T/F: Neurons have more than one axon? F- Only one axon
What cells do NOT have dendrites? Pseudounipolar cells
Are multipolar neurons motor or sensory? Both, motor and sensory
Are psuedounipolar motor or sensory? Sensory only (Primary afferent, GSA, GVA)
Where are CNS neurons COMPLETELY contained? CNS
What type of neuron (CNS/PNS) is psuedounipolar? PNS (Only functional ex: primary AFFerent neuron)
Afferent PNS examples? GSA, GVA, SVA, SSA
All pre-ganglionic GVE neurons have ___ axons Myelinated
All post-ganglionic GVE neurons have ___ axons Unmyelinated
All neuron cel bodies in CNS are derived from where? Mantle zone of the neural tube
All neuron cell bodies in PNS are derived from where? Neural crest
What is the only cell to arise from mesenchyme? Microgila (phagocytes)
All cells except phagocytes, arise from? Neuroectoderm
Neural tube derivatives of the CNS are made up of what 3 layers? Ependymal layer, Mantle layer, Marginal layer
What is made from the ependymal layer? CNS neuroglial cells: Ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodenddrocytes
What is made from the mantle zone? All neurons of CNS. PNS neurons: GSE, pre-gang GVE. IN ADULTS BECOMES GRAY MATTER
What is made from the marginal zone? White matter and tracts
The sulcus limitans divides the neural tube into? Alar plate and Basal plate
Alar plate? Sensory. Dorsal in cord, more anterolateral in brain
Basal plate? Motor. Ventral in cord, more dorsal in brain
What are the 3 cephalic enlargements? Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
Prosencephalon is made of? Telencephalon and Diencephalon
Rhombencephalon is made of? Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
Where is the pontine flexure located? BW metencephalon and myelencephalon
What does the pontine flexure give rise too? Rhombic lip of metencephalic alar plate and becomes the cerebellum
Define tectum? (Roof) superior and inferior colliculus
Define tegmentum? (Floor) in midbrain , pons, medulla
What do all cells require for maintaing resting potential? Passive ion channels
What channel creates the spike potential of an action potential? Sodium channel
T/F: Chemically dependent channels are NOT all or none? T - They mediate EPSP, IPSP, MEPP
T/F: The C1 dorsal ramus contains NO sensory component? T
What does the dorsal primary ramus (D1R) innervate? Skeletal M, aa, glands, skin of the back or posterior surfaces of the head
What does the ventral primary ramus (V1P) innervate? Anterolateral portions of the body wall and the extremities
What axons do the D1R contain? GVE, GSE, GVA, GSA
What axons do the V1R contain? GVE, GSE, GVA, GSA
What are the two types of communicating rami? Gray and white
What is the purpose of the communicating rami? These branches serve to connect the spinal nerve with the sympathetic chain ganglia
T/F: The WHITE rami are myelinated, pre-gang fibers (GVE pre-gang), and visceral afferent axons that return info from organ systems/internal cavity vessels to the CNS T
T/F: The GRAY rami are UNmyelinated post-gang fibers (GVE post-gang) arising from sympathetic chain and destined to body wall and limbs T
What 3 things will the post-gang, coming from the GRAY matter, innervate? Sweat glands, vascular smooth m, erector pili m
Where are WHITE rami only found? Spinal Ns T1-L2,3
T/F: Gray rami are branches of only some spinal Ns? F- Branches of ALL spinal Ns
What are splanchnic Ns branches of? Certain thoracic, lumbar, and sacral sympathetic chain gang and trunks associated with these spinal Ns
Splanchnic Ns provide what types of axons and where? GVE pre-gang to abdom viscera and also passage for GVA from surrounding areas to CNS
Where do the meningeal br arise from? V1R and gray rami
What do the meningeal br supply? Meningies, BV, intervertebral disc
What kind of axons are in the meningeal br? Sensory- GVA, GSA and sympathetic-GVE-post gang
Define dermatome? The sensory innervation of a dorsal root
Define a neuron? The main structural and functional cellular units of the nervous system.
What does a neuron do? Receives impulses,and has the ability to elicit and effect (either excitatory or inhibitory)
What is the receptive portion of a neuron? Dendrites and cell body (soma)
What is the conductive portion of a neuron? Axon
What is the effector portion of a neuron? Terminal boutons of the axon which store and release neurotransmitters
In an axon, which way does the impulse travel compared to the cell body? AWAY from the cell body
T/F: An axon is Incapable of independent protein synthesis. T- The axon relies on the cell body for ALL its nutrition and maintenance
What happens if an axon becomes separated from the cell body? The axon dies
Which has more surface area, dendrite or axon? Dendrite
Does axonal and dendritic transport depend on electrical transmission of impulse conduction? Nope
Dendritic transport is movement in a..... Cellulifugal direction (AWAY from the cell body)
Define axonal transport? Movement of axoplasm BOTH away from and toward cell body. 2 kinds: anterograde & retrograde
Define SLOW anterograde? Moves at .2-2.5 mm/day for maintenance and repair
Define FAST anterograde? Moves at 200-4oo mm/day Transports subcelluar organelles, mitochondria, and neurotransmitters. Carried out by neurotubules and filaments. ATP required
Define retrograde? Allows for retrieval of raw materials from the terminal to the cell body. Carries many different viral/bacterial particles (herpes simplex, rabies, polio, tetanus.
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? NTX released at this synapse which then diffuse across the cleft, binding to specific receptor sites (effect is either excitatory or inhibitory) Chemical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Increased extracellular space (20-30nm)? Chemical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? No synaptic vesicles, no NTX? Electrical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Mediating agent is a chemical transmitter? Chemical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Reduced extracellular space (2nm)? Electrical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? No synaptic delay? Electrical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Pre and postsynp memb are joined at a gap junction? Electrical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Mediating agent is ionic current? Electrical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Typically unidirectional? Chemical
Which synapse: Chemical/Electrical? Typically bidirectional? Electrical
Define Retrograde Reaction (axon reaction)? The total response of the nerve cell body brought about be the loss of part of the axon
Who is the Retrograde reaction/axon reaction happening too? The nerve cell body - its response to losing its axon
What are the 4 signs of the nerve cells response to injury? Cell body swelling, destory the RER (CHROMATOLYSIS), disapperance of the nucleolus, nuclear displacement
What dissapears in chromatolysis? The nissel (rER) substance
Define tract? A bundle of axons in the CNS all doing the same thing
What method do you use when you want to find the nuclei when you know where the terminal fields are? (Exploit) Retrograde tracing method
What method do you use when you want to find the terminal fields are and you know where the nuclei are? Autoradiographic anterograde method
Define Nernst Equation? SPECIFIC ION Estimates the potential at which equilibrium us reached when the electrostatic forces of movement are equal and opposite to the concentration forces
Define segmental innervation? Noun is the MUSCLE
Define neurological level? Noun is the NERVE
What axons are in ventral ROOT? GSE, Pre-GVE
What axons are in dorsal ROOT? GSA, GVA
What axons are in V1R GSA,GVE,GSE,GVE (ALL)
What axons are in the D1R? GSA,GVA,GSE,GVE (ALL)
At what level will the spinal cord be present? Above L3
Where is white rami only found? T1-L2,3
Where do all pre-gang sympathetic start? In lateral horn
Where is parasympathetic carried? Carried by Vagus N....vagus N starts in medualla NOT spinal cord
T/F: ALL cell membranes have passive/non-gated ion channels? T
Define resting potential? Inside of the cell membrane is 70mV MORE negative than the outside of the membrane
What are the 4 requirements for an AP? Thin membrane, passive ion channels, proteins, NA/K pump
What are the 2 forces that act on ALL ions? Concentration gradient, electrical gradient
With K movement the ___ gradient is GREATER then the ___ gradient CONCENTRATION grad is greater then the ELECTRICAL grad
The net movement of K is? OUT of the cell
Na moves? INTO the cell
What two things can be excited? Muscle and Nerve tissue
What initiates a contraction? Opening of Ca channels
What kind of ion channels does excitable cells have? GATED ion channels
Ligand-dependent channels cause __ potentials? Subthreshold
Voltage-gated dependent channels cause ___potentials? All or none
Ex of a subthreshold potential? EPSP, IPSP
Ex of a all or none potential? AP
Are ligand gated channels specific or non-specific? Both
Ex of a specific ligand gated channel? K, Cl, IPSP
E of a non-specfific ligand gated channel? Na, K, EPSP
Created by: wizdumbslp