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1930s US History

Science, Tech, Important Events

TermDefinition
The Great Depression beginnings (A) The wealth of the 1920s was mainly smoke and mirrors; many Americans were convinced by the long bull market to invest in stocks. Many novice investors bought these stocks on margin where they placed only a small cash down-payment as low as 10%. (Textbook)
The Great Depression beginnings (B) However, in the late 1920s economic speculators took risks betting that the market would continue to climb. By the later part of 1929 the stock market was quickly running out of new customers. (Textbook)
The Great Depression beginnings (C) On Black Tuesday, October 1929, stocks lost 10$ to 15$ billion dollars in value. (texbook.The market crash weakened the banking system; many banks had in the past loaned money to speculators and had invested depositors loans into the stock market.
The Great Depression beginnings (D) The news of the stock market crash led many Americans to run on the banks demanding their savings back causing many banks to collapse.
Causes of the Great Depression (Problems of the 1920s society) (Inequality) The richest one percent of Americans owned over a third of all American assets. Such wealth concentrated in the hands of a few limits economic growth. As well as overproduction.
Causes of the Great Depression (Problems of the 1920s society) (Overproduction) Advances in factory machinery allowed businesses to produce massive amounts of good cheaply, however the average the consumer could not afford this surplus of new goods and so many of them went unsold thus driving down profits.
1930s Popular Culture (A) The 1930s marked the beginning of the so called “golden age” of Hollywood and saw the release of full-color classic films such as The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind and Snow White and the Seven Dwarves.
1930s Popular Culture (B) Furthermore, in the sphere of music, Swing music became very popular in this decade and gradually eclipsed Jazz which had come into popularity in the 1920s.
1930s Popular Culture (B) Empire State Building in 1931 and the completion of the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937; In the realm of literature we saw the advent of many “classics” such as Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath, Brave New World, and the Hobbit.
1930s Popular Culture (C) Finally, in the area of visual art, a new form of art, social realism was emerging, which sought to portray imagery with a deeper socio-political; as well the art form art deco, had peaked in this decade.
Hindenburg (A) As the Hindenburg was making her maiden voyage of the 1937 season, she departed from Frankfurt Germany about half-full on course to the United States. At around 7:00 pm on May 6th the Hindenburg was coming in for landing over Lakehurst, New Jersey.
Hindenburg (B) The Hindenburg was completely engulfed in flame in only about 34 seconds, crew and passengers only had seconds to react and about half, 35 of the 97 passengers and crew, died. It was widely reported media which effectively ended the airship era.
Changes in the Family (A) the depression caused many couples to delay marriage and divorce rate fell sharply as it became too expensive as well birth rates dropped below the replacement level for the first time in American history.
Changes in the Family (B) many men now found themselves out of work and now were forced to rely on their wives and children in some cases to help make ends meet. This caused many frustrated men to simply walk out on their families entirely.
Changes in the Family (C) Where, Women now left with little choice, went to work outside their houses to help support their family. This helped increase their status and power in the home as they were now the new breadwinners in the home, they now had a voice in domestic decisions
Law & Justice (A) After the repeal of prohibition in 1933 the American Mafia were forced to switch to new criminal ventures such as; drug trafficking, prostitution, illegal gambling, extortion, loan sharking and the infiltration and corruption of labor unions.
Law & Justice (B) As well during the early portion of this decade there was resurgence in banditry; including famous bandits such as Bonnie & Clyde. Furthermore the 1930s saw massive increases in vagrancy as well as effort to combat what was deemed an “epidemic.”
Law & Justice (C) The typical vagrant was unemployed, had no home, and were seen sleeping on park benches; they were subject to vagrancy patrols in which they were arrested, detained, and sent off to workhouses.
DDT (A) Although DDT was synthesized much earlier in the late 1800s its insecticidal properties DDT came into public attention when it was first used by American troops in Naples in WW2 to combat a typhus epidemic (a disease spread by lice, fleas, and ticks).
DDT (B) As well it was sprayed over islands in the Pacific Theater to eliminate dengue fever and malaria. It was publicly available in 1945 where it was used to control the population of common agriculture pesticides as well as control of vector-borne diseases.
DDT (C) DDT was used extensively in the US during the mid-1900s, however, by 1970 American became concerned about the carcinogenicity and ecotoxicology of the agent. Therefore in 1972 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned the use of DDT on all crops.
Polio (A) Early methods of controlling the disease involved quarantine of the infected and treatments derived from animal serums, neither of which was terribly effective.
Polio (B) However, experiments in 1931 marked a revival of virologic studies on patients in attempts to isolate the poliovirus in human victims and duplicate the disease in experimental animals.
Polio (C) Maurice Brodie prepared a killed poliovirus vaccine, testing it on chimpanzees, on himself, and finally on about 11,000 children. Meanwhile, John Kolmer developed an attenuated (weakened) poliovirus vaccine, which he tested in about 10,000 children.
Antibiotics (A) The first antibiotic drug ever discovered was Pyocyanase in 1888 (however, it was very toxic and unreliable); and although Penicillin was discovered in 1928 to have antimicrobial properties it was still undergoing testing during this time period.
Antibiotics (B) Within a relatively short period, it was demonstrated that Prontosil was effective not only in combating experimental infections in animals but also against streptococcal diseases in humans.
Antibiotics (C) As well it was also found that the active ingredient in prontosil was actually a much smaller molecule called sulfanilamide. Use of prontosil and other sulfa drugs spread rapidly.
Antibiotics (D) Although sulfa drugs were heavily circulated during the 1930s and 40s they were eventually eclipsed by by penicillin in the mid-1940s, however, some sulfa drugs are still available today.
Created by: Leopraos