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Anat 2 Test 1


What is a palpebrae Eyelid
What is the mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelids and covering the surface of the eye Conjunctiva
In lateral aspect of roof of orbit/has both inf and sup parts/ secretions form this gland pass through 6-12 ducts which open onto the conjunctiva Lacrimal Gland
Small openings into superior and inferior lacrimal canaliculi Sup and Inf Lacrimal Puncta
Small tubular ducts leading to lacrimal sac Sup and Inf Lacrimal Canaliculi
Enlarged cavity located in fossa for lacrimal sac Lacrimal sac
Duct running from lacrimal sac and opening into nasal cavity Nasolacrimal Duct
Small reddish conical body of skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands/source of whitish secretions that collect in this area Lacrimal Caruncula
A semilunar fold of conjunctiva Plica semilunaris
A triangular space at the medial angle of eye where tears collect Lacrimal Lake
Route of Tears Lacrimal Gland -> Lacrimal lake -> lacrimal puncta -> lacrimal canaliculi -> lacrimal sac -> nasolacrimal duct -> nasal cavity
Outer layer of eyeball Sclera
Middle layer of eyeball Choroid
Inner layer of eyeball Retina
Contains axons leading from the retina to brain/outer surface covered by dura Optic nerve
Point of exit for fibers forming optic nerve/lacks rod and cone receptors, thus insensitive to light Optic disk
Yellow spot about half a mm in diameter, consisting only of cone receptors/ point of critical vision Macula Lutea
In the center of the macula is a small pit called? Fovea Centralis
Situated between iris and vitreous body; the crystalline, transparent, elliptical lens acts to focus light on the retina Lens
Acts to suspend the lens via attachment to the ciliary body Suspensory ligaments
Contraction reduces tension on the suspensory ligaments, thus causing the shape of the lens to change for near distance (becomes thicker) Ciliary Muscle
Contains the ciliary muscle Ciliary body
A watery fluid secreted by the ciliary body and contained within the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye Aqueous humor
A transparent semigelatinous substance filling the vitreous chamber Vitreous body
Colored part of eye just anterior to the lens and surrounding the pupil Iris
Inner circular layer of smooth muscle in the Iris which reduces pupil diameter Constrictor/sphincter pupillae
Outer radiating layer of smooth muscle that increases pupil diameter Dilator pupillae
Opening for entrance of light into the eye Pupil
Clear/transparent extension of sclera over anterior 1/6 of eye Cornea
Between iris and lens Posterior Chamber
Between iris and cornea Anterior Chamber
Posterior to lens containing the vitreous body Vitreous Chamber
Minute small cavities at junction of iris and cornea/ drains aqueous humor from anterior chamber Trabeculae
Drains aqueous humor from the trabeculae and delivers it to small veins in the immediate area scleral Venous Sinus (Canal of Schlemm)
Route of Aqueous Humor Cilliary body -> posterior chamber -> pupil -> anterior chamber -> trabeculae -> scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm) -> vein
Ocular Muscles Levator Palpebrae Superioris, Recti Muscles, Oblique Muscles
Raises upper eyelid; direct antagonist of the obicularis oculi Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Arise form a common tendinous ring that surrounds the optic foramen and part of the superior orbital fissure Recti Muscles
What are the Recti Muscles Superior Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Medial Rectus, Lateral Rectus
Recti Muscle that elevates and adducts Superior Rectus
Recti Muscle that depresses and adducts Inferior Rectus
Recti Muscle that Adducts only Medial Rectus
Recti Muscle that abducts only Lateral Recuts
Oblique muscle that depresses and abducts/ its tendon passes through a cartilaginous loop (the trochlea) Superior Oblique
Oblique muscle that elevates and abducts Inferior Oblique
Outer elastic cartilage funnel used to collect sound waves and direct them toward the external acoustic/auditory meatus Auricle/pinna
rim of the auricle helix
elevation internal and parallel to helix antihelix
deep cavity bordered by antihelix concha
dorsal projection anterior to concha and over orifice of the meatus tragus
a small tubercle opposite the tragus antitragus
directly below the antitragus, lacks cartilage lobule/ ear lobe
About 1 inch in length, extending from the concha to tympanic membrane/eardrum External Acoustic Meatus
Waxy substance secreted by sweat glands in the external acoustic meatus Cerumen
Describe the external acoustic meatus The outer 1/3 is cartilage, the inner 2/3 passes through the temporal bone. Skin lining the meatus contains small hairs and modified sweat glands that secrete cerumen.
Located in petrous and mastoid portions of the temporal bone Middle Ear
air filled space in temporal bone/part of middle ear Tympanic cavity
What are the parts of the tympanic cavity Tympanic Membrane - laterally Inner Ear - Medially Auditory Tube - Connects to nasopharynx
3 small bones that transmit vibration from tympanic membrane to inner ear. Ossicles
Describe how the Ossicles work Are a system of levers that act as a hydraulic press, transforming the pressure on the tympanic membrane to a 22 fold greater pressure on the cochlear fluids of the inner ear
The hammer-shaped outermost ossicle with a handle embedded in the tympanic membrane Malleus
The anvil-shaped middle ossicle Incus
The stirrup-shaped innermost ossicle articulating with the oval window Stapes
Opening on medial wall leading from the tympanic cavity into the vestibule of the inner ear; it receives the base of the stapes Oval Window
Other name for the Oval Window Fenestra Vestibuli
Membrane covered hole in medial wall Round window
Other name for the round window Fenestra Cochleae
Muscles of the round window Tensor tympani muscle, stapedius muscle
insertes into stapes and innervated by CN 7. Decreases vibration, preventing excessive movement of the stapes Stapedius muscle
insertes into the malleus and innervated CN V3. Increases tension on tympanic membrane, decreasing vibrations, and preventing damabe Tensor tympani muscle
Hollowed-out fluid filled passageway in petrous portion of temporal bone. Osseous Labyrinth
What is the Osseous Labyrinth made of Walls of tunnel are compact bone all surrounded by spongey bone
Central portion of osseous labyrinth Vestibule
Receives the foot plate of the stapes Oval window (fenestra vestibule)
Covered with a membrane which accommodates changes in the fluid pressure of the perilymph by moving in and out of synchrony with movements of the stapes at the oval window Round window (fenestra cochlea)
3 canals branching posterolateral from the vestibule Semicircular canals
Branching anteromedial, from the vestibule. Has two osseous chambers along its length and looks like a snail Cochlea
Attached tot he vestibule and running to the helicotrema at the apex of the cochlea Scala vestibuli
From the helicotrema to the round window Scala tympani
Fluid in the osseous labyrinth Perilymph
Tubular fluid filled passageway with membranous walls positioned inside the osseous labyrinth Membranous labyrinth
Fluid in the membranous labyrinth Endolymph
Part of the membranous labyrinth that is located in the vestibule and innervated by the vestibular nerve Saccule and Utricle
3 ducts attached to the utricle and located inside the semicircular canals. Innervated by vestibular nerve Semicircular Ducts
Dilated area at the base of each semicircular duct Ampulla
Attached to the saccule and located inside the cochlea, between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Innervated by chochlear nerve Cochlear duct
Blind ending sac which expands under dura mater lining the posterior part of the temporal bone. Endolymphatic duct
Pathway for hearing Sound -> tympanic membrane -> ossicles, stapes to oval window -> perilymph in scala vestibuli, then in scala tympani ->basilar membrane of cochlear duct -> hairs on hair cells bent against tectorial membrane -> hair cells depolarize -> cochlear N stim.
Where is the area of max. vibration in cochlear duct Basilar membrane of cochlear duct
How are different sound frequencies perceived based on which part of the basilar membrane of the cochlear duct vibrates
How is equilibrium maintained By the vestibular apparatus
Components of the vestibular apparatus Saccule, utricle and semicircular ducts
Deals with the effects of gravity on head position and rapid linear acceleration and deceleration Static equilibrium
Receptors for static equilibrium and where they are Maculae, located in walls of utricle and saccule
Deal with rotational or angular acceleration or deceleration of the head Dynamic equilibrium
Receptors for dynamic equilibrium Cristae, located in ampullae at bases of semicircular ducts
Superior Border of heart Suspended in rib cage via great vessels
Anterior Border of heart Body of sternum and thymus gland
Anterolateral, Posterolateral, and lateral border of heart Lung and its plura
Posterior Border of heart Part of R. lung, Part of L. Lung, esophagus, aorta
Inferior Border of heart Diaphragmatic portion of parietal pericardium/pericardial sac fused firmly with central tendon of diaphram, with inferior vena cava penetrating it on the right side
Encloses the Heart and the proximal portions of the great vessels, originating and terminating in the heart. It consists of a parietal and visceral component Pericardium
The fibrous pericardium with its serous lining Parietal Pericardium
The reflection of the serous component on the origins and terminations of the great vessels and the heart Visceral Pericardium (epicardium)
The space between the two serous membranes in the pericardium. Surfaces are in contact and covered with a watery fluid that reduces friction during contraction and relaxation of the heart Pericardial Cavity
External heart structure that points anteriorly, inferiorly and left Apex
External groove on heart that separates atria from ventricles Coronary sulcus
On external heart, divides right and left ventricles and meet each other at a notch near the apex Anterior and Posterior interventricular suli
Lyes Anteriorly and occupies most of the sternocostal surface Right ventricle
Sits at the posterior aspect of the heart Left Atrium
The appendage of the atrium Auricle
A variale amount of fat occupying the sulci of the heart Cardiac Fat
Circulation that supplies the entire body Systemic circulation
Circulation that supplies the lungs Pulmonary circulation
Heart chambers that receive blood Left and right atria
Heart chambers that pump blood to the body and the lungs left and right ventricles
Two main parts of the right atrium Principal cavity (sinus venarum), auricle
Vessels emptying blood into the right atrium Anterior cardiac veins, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, venarum minimarum
What vessels enters the right atrium through the ostium Coronary sinus
Muscular wall separating the right from left atrium Interatrial Septum
Remains of the aperture of the foramen ovale Fossa Ovalis
Raised margin of the fossa ovalis located above and anteriorly to the fossa Limbus of the fossa ovalis
Valves associated with the right atrium Valve of the inferior vena cava, valve of the coronary sinus, tricuspid valve/right AV valve
is a small fold which is incompetent in regards to preventing backflow into coronary sinus located in right atrium valve of the coronary sinus
Is a falciform fold which is much larger in the fetus, located in right atrium Valve of the inferior vena cava
Guards the right AV ostium and is composed of three cusps, in the right atrium Tricuspid valve/right atrioventricular valve
What are the cusps of the R. AV valve called Anterior, posterior, septal cusps
A muscular ridge in the right atrium that extends downwards from near the ostium of the superior VC towards the front of the inferior VC The crista terminalis
Muscular ridges in the right auricle Pectinate muscles
The blind, ear-shaped pouch extending out anteroinferiorly form the heart Right Auricle
Thickness of right ventricle compared to left Right is 1/3 the size of the left
The funnel-shaped upper end of the right ventricle which gives rise to the pulmonary trunk, in right ventricle Conus Arteriosus
Fibrous cords extending from the cusps of the tricuspid valve to the ends of the protruding nipple like papillary muscles, in right ventricle Chordae Tendineae
What are the names of the papillary muscles in the right ventricle Anterior, posterior, septal (correspond to the cusps of the R. AV valve
Ridge-like bundles of muscle which project into the cavity of the right ventricle Trabeculae Carneae
Particularly prominent muscle of the trabeculae carneae group which passes from interventricular septum to the base of the anterior papillary muscle Septomarginal trabecula/moderator band
Where is the right crus of the AV bundle located In the Septomarginal trabecula/moderator band muscle
Valves associated with the right ventricle Tricuspid/right atrioventricular valve, pulmonary valve
Cusps of the Pulmonary valve Right, left and anterior
Other names for the pulmonary valve Pulmonary semilunar valve, Right semilunar valve
Vessels entering into the left atrium 4 pulmonary veins
Apex of left ventricle is also? The apex of the heart
Similar structures in the Left Ventricle as in the right Chordae Tendineae, papillary muscles, Trabeculae carneae,
What is the interventricular septum composed of A thin dorsal membranous part, the pars membranacae and ventral think muscular part, the pars muscularis
What are the valves associated with the left ventricle Left AV/bicuspid/mitral valve, aortic/aortic semilunar/left semilunar valve
Valve that Guards the left AV ostium Left AV/bicuspid/mitral valve
Name of the cusps of the mitral valve Anterior and Posterior
Valve that is located behind the pumonary valve and is composed of 3 cusps. Prevents the regurgitation of blood into the ventricle while the pressure in the aorta is high Aortic valve
Where do most heart valve problems happen Mitral valve
Why does most blood enter the coronary arteries Recoil of the aorta
What leads to heart attacks Obstruction of the coronary arteries (anoxia of heart)
Path of the left coronary artery Starts in the Sinus of left cusp of aortic valve at base of aorta. Then divides into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery
Path of the Anterior Interventricular Artery Descends in Anterior Interventricular sulcus to supply entire left ventricle and portions of right. Gives origin to Left marginal branch
Describe the circumflex artery of the heart Passes around to posterior surface of heart in coronary groove. Terminates as posterior ventricular branch on diaphragmatic surface of heart
Describe the right coronary artery Arises from sinus of the right cusp of aortic valve. Passes in R. coronary sulcus. Gives rise to snuatrial nodal branch and R. marginal branch. Courses to posterior surface as posterior interventricular branch.
What gives off the AV nodal branch to AV node Posterior interventricular artery
What artery suplies most of the diaphragmatic/posterior surface of the heart Right coronary artery
Anastomoses of the Coronary arteries -Anterior interventricular with posterior interventricular -Circumflex with right coronary
Describe the Cardiac Veins Great Cardiac vein ascends in ant. interventricular sulcus to coronary sulcus. Continues to left with circumflex a. Joined from above by oblique vein of left atrium. Becomes coronary sinus. Post. vein of left ventricle joins. empties into right atrium
Tributaries to coronary sinus Middle cardiac vein, Small cardiac vein
vein that Ascends in the posterior interventricular sulcus with posterior interventricular artery Middle cardiac vein
Vein that passes from front of heart in coronary sulcus into right atrium Small cardiac vein
Surface veins that open directly into the right atrium Anterior Cardiac Veins
What does the SA node consist of Cardiac fiber which are quite vascular and intimately associated with autonomic nerve fibers
Where is the SA node located In right atrial wall between auricle and superior vena cava, at upper end of crista terminalis where the pectinate muscles seem to terminate
What does the SA node do Contraction of the heart muscle, initiated by at the SA node, spreads rapidly through atrial muscles resulting in the atria injecting blood through the AV ostia into the two ventricles. Impulse reaches AV node
What is the AV node and where is it composed of specialized cardiac fibers located in the interatrial septum near the ostium of the coronary sinus
What is the AV bundle a group of pale muscle fibers (purkinje fibers) of unusual morphology and characteristics which are specialized for conduction of impulses to cardiac muscle fibers
where is the AV bundle located Extends from AV node into pars membranacae of the interventricular septum and there it divides into right and left crus of the AV bundle
This AV bundle passes just deep to the edocardium and to the left ventricular wall Left crus of the AV bundle
This AV bundle extends downward just under endocardium of interventricular septum and crosses cavity of right ventricle via septomarginal trabecula, to base of anterior papillary muscle Right crus of the AV bundle
What does the AV bundle do Transmits impulses initiated in the SA node to apex of the ventricles before turning up to end close to the level of the valves of the heart. Assures a milking action towards the ostia of the aorta and pulmonary trunk
Innervation of SA and AV nodes Parasympathetics (SA=R. Vagus AV=L. Vagus) Sympathetics (SA=R. sympathetics AV=L. sympathetics)
Section of the Aorta Ascending, Arch, Descending Thoracic
Artery that is 3 cm in diameter, 5-5.5 cm long, enclosed within the pericardial sac; gives origin to right and left coronary arteries Ascending Aorta
Artery that lies in superior mediastinum just deep to the lower part of the manubrium, passes over bifurcation of pulmonary trunk, first anterior then left of trachea. Aortic Arch
Arteries that branch off of the Aortic Arch Brachiocephalic trunk/artery, left common carotid, left subclavian
Nerves that cross the aortic arch L. Vagus, L. phrenic
Artery that lies in posterior mediastinum and extends from level of disc of T4/5 and sternal angle to lower body of T12. Passes posterior to root of left lung Descending Thoracic Aorta
Visceral Branches of the Descending Thoracic Aorta Pericardial aa., bronchial aa., esophageal aa., mediastinal aa.
Describe the Pericardial aa. that come from the descending aorta 2-4 small vessels that Dorsal surface of pericardial sac
Describe the bronchial aa. that come from the descending aorta There is 1 right and 2 left. They anastomose with bronchial aa., providing potential collateral. Supply Bronchial tubes, stroma of lungs and part of thoracic portion of esophagus
Describe the esophageal aa. that come from the descending aorta 4-5 arteries that supply the esophagus
Describe the mediastinal aa. that come from the descending aorta Numerous small vessels that supply lymph nodes and losse areolar connective tissue in posterior mdiastinum
Parietal Branches of the descending aorta Posterior intercostal aa, subcostal aa, superior phrenic aa.
Describe the Posterior intercostal aa. that come from the descending aorta 9 pairs from dorsal aspect, distributed to lower 9 intercostal spaces. Anastomose with anterior intercostal aa. Supply spinal cord, vertebrae, meninges, erector spinae, ribs, intercostal mm, serratus anterior, mammary glands, skin on lat. thoracic wall
Describe the subcostal aa that come from the descending aorta Lie inferior to 12th ribs, distribution similar to posterior intercostal aa
Describe the superior phrenic aa that come from the descending aorta Small vessels which arise from caudal aspect of thoracic aorta. Supply superior surface of respiratory diaphragm
Artery that lies completely within pericardial sac, with visceral serous pericardium reflected over surface. Arises from conus arteriosus of right ventricle. Ascends obliquely, passing anterior the left of ascending aorta. Bifurcates Pulmonary Trunk
Bifurcations of Pulmonary Trunk Right Pulmonary Artery, Left Pulmonary Artery
Artery that is Longer and Larger of pair, runs posterior to ascending aorta and superior vena cava and anterior to right bronchus. Divides into 2 branches (also name the branches) Right Pulmonary Artery, 1 Branch to superior lobe, 1 to inferior and middle lobes
Artery that is Shorter and smaller of pair, passes anterior to descending aorta and L. bronchus and connected to aortic arch. Splits into 2 branches (name the branches) Left Pulmonary Artery, 1 Branch to superior lobe, 1 to inferior lobe
How is the left pulmonary artery attached to the aortic arch Ligamentum arteriosum
To the left of ligamentum arteriosum is nerve that loops under the aorta. What is it and what groove is it in Left recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus. In tracheoesophageal groove
Vein formed by junction of internal jugular and subclavian veins. Terminates by forming superior vena cava Brachiocephalic veins
Vein about 1" long and begins deep to sternal end of clavicle, Drains into superior vena cava Right brachiocephalic vein
Vein about 2" long and begins at sternal end of clavicle, drains into superior vena cava Left brachiocephalic vein
Tributaries to Right brachiocephalic vein and what they are draining Right vertebral v. (posterior cervical area), Right internal thoracic v. (areas supplied by internal thoracic a.), Right inferior thyroid v. (thyroid gland), RIGHT 1st POSTERIOR INTERCOSTAL v. (1st intercostal space)
Tributaries to Left brachiocephalic vein and what they are draining Left vertebral v. (posterior cervical area), Left internal thoracic v. (areas supplied by internal thoracic a.), Left inferior thyroid v. (thyroid gland), Left highest intercostal v. (2nd-4th interspaces)
Vein begins opposite 1st of 2nd lumbar vertebrae from the right ascending lumbar v. and a branch from the inferior vena cava. Passes over root of right lung and empties into superior vena cava Azygos vein
Tributaries of Azygos Vein Right posterior intercostal veins, right highest intercostal vein, right subcostal vein, hemiazygos vein, accessory hemiazygos vein, right bronchial vein
2,3,4 right posterior intercostal veins fuse to form this vein Right highest intercostal vein
Crosses over to azygos at T9 vertebra; has its own tributaries Hemiazygos vein
Tributaries of the Hemiazygos vein Caudal 3 or 4 left posterior intercostal vv, Left subcostal v, some esophageal and mediastinal vv, left bronchial vv
Cross the body of T8 or joins hemiazygos after beginning at T4; Accessory Hemiazygos vein
What are the tributaries of the accessory hemiazygos vein Middle 3 or 4 left posterior intercostal veins
4 Veins returning oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium. Right veins pass posterior to right atrium and SVC. Left veins are anterior to descending thoracic aorta Pulmonary Veins
A thick partition in the thorax which is bounded laterally by pleural sacs, ventrally by the sternum and dorsally by the vertebral column Mediastinum
Limits of superior mediastinum Upper = Plane of first rib Lower = horizontal line passing through the sternal angle and disk between T4 and T5
Limits of Inferior Mediastinum Upper = superior mediastinum Lower = Respiratory diaphragm Sub divided into anterior, middle and posterior
Anterior Mediastinum limits Sup. = lower border of superior mediastinum Inf. = diaphragm Ant. = body of sternum Post. = pericardial sac (fibrous pericardium)
Middle Mediastinum Sup. = lower border of superior mediastinum Inf. = diaphragm Ant. = Pericardial sac (inc sac) Post. = Pericardial sac (inc sac)
Posterior Mediastinum limits Sup. = lower border of superior mediastinum Inf. = diaphragm Ant. = Pericardial sac Post = vertebral column Caudally = to level of T12
Contents of Superior Mediastinum O of sternohyoid and sternothyroid mm, thymus gland, proximal brachiocephalic a/l. common carotid/l. subclavian, SVC, L&R brachiocephalic v, aortic arch, main trunk of vagus nn., phrenic nn, cardiac nn, arch of aorta, esophagus, trachea
Contents of Anterior Mediastinum No major structures; some lymph nodes, areolar CT, small branches of internal thoracic artery and sternopericardial ligaments
Contents of Middle Mediastinum Pericardial sac and heart, lower half of SVC, termination of azygos v, pulmonary trunk, phrenic nerves, insertion of pulmonary vv into heart, lymph nodes
Contents of posterior mediastinum Descending thoracic aorta, azygos vein, hemiazygos vein, R&L bronchus, thoracic duct, greater/lesser/least splanchnic nn, R&L vagus nn, esophagus, trachea and its bifurcation
describe the path of the phrenic nerve in the middle mediastinum Passes anterior to roots of lungs, then runs on external surface of the pericardial sac
Describe the path of the Right vagus nerve in the posterior mediastinum Runs near trachea passing posterior to root of right lung, then runs on posterior surface of esophagus
Describe the path of the Left vagus nerve in the posterior mediastinum Passes over anterior left side of aortic arch giving off left recurrent laryngeal n, the posterior to rood of left lung, then runs on anterior surface of esophagus
What section of the mediastinum is the largest The posterior
Created by: bmlanger