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History Chapter11-19

Chapters 11-19

Samuel Slater A 1789 immigrant from England who built the first successful water-powered textile mill in America
Industrial Revolution A time in the late 18th century when factory machines replaced hand tools and large-scale manufacturing replaced farming
factory system A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
Lowell Mills Name of Massachusetts' textile industry which hired women and girls to work 12-hour days
interchangeable part A machine part that is exactly like another part
Robert Fulton Inventor of a steamboat that could move against the current of a strong wind and thus improved traveling time
Samuel F. B. Morse Inventor of the telegraph, a machine that uses electricity along a wire to send messages over long distances
steel plow John Deere's invention that helped farmers plow the rich heavy soil of the Midwest and increase production
Eli Whitney Inventor of a machine for cleaning cotton that changed Southern life
cotton gin A machine invented in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers
spiritual A religious folk song, often created and sung by African Americans
Nat Turner Leader of an 1831 armed revolt against slavery in Virginia
nationalism Feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
Henry Clay He was a Kentucky representative, strong nationalist, and promoter of a plan to strengthen and unify the U.S.
American System A plan introduced in 1815 to make the United States economically self-sufficient
Erie Canal Completed in 1825, this waterway connected New York City and Buffalo, New York, improving U.S. transportation
James Monroe He won the presidential election of 1816 as a Democratic-Republican, helped by the rise in nationalism
sectionalism Loyalty to the interests of one's own region above loyalty to the interests of the nation as a whole
Missouri Compromise A series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Monroe Doctrine A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the Western Hemisphere, announced in 1823
John Quincy Adams New England's choice for president in the fiercely disputed race of 1824, he became the sixth U.S. president
Andrew Jackson A military hero, candidate in the 1824 presidential election, and winner of the 1828 presidential election
Jacksonian Democracy The idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule
spoils system The practice of giving government jobs to political backers or supporters of elected public officials
Sequoya A Cherokee who invented a writing system, hoping that literacy could help the Cherokee keep their independence
Indian Removal Act An 1830 act that gave the government power to negotiate treaties to force Native Americans to relocate west
Indian Territory Present-day Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska to which Native Americans were sent under U.S. treaties
Trail of Tears The 1838-1839 deadly journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory
John C. Calhoun A leader in Congress and advocate of a strong central government who later became a champion of states' rights
Tariff of Abominations An 1828 law that upset Southerners by raising the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods
doctrine of nullification The right of a state to reject a federal law that it considers unconstitutional
Webster-Hayne debate An 1830 debate between a senator from Massachusetts and a senator from North Carolina over nullification
Daniel Webster "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" said this powerful senator in an 1830 speech on states' rights
secession Term for a state's withdrawal from the Union
inflation When an economy experiences an increase in prices and a decrease in the value of money
Martin Van Buren Vice-president to Andrew Jackson and elected president in 1836, he inherited Jackson's puffed-up prosperity
Panic of 1837 A time when economic fears prompted people to demand that banks exchange their paper money for gold and silver
depression A severe economic slump
Whig Party Political party formed to oppose Jackson's policies and the political power held by the chief executive
William Henry Harrison Whig Party candidate for the 1840 presidential race and military hero who lacked strong political views
mountain man Term for fur trapper or explorer who found trails through the Rocky Mountains and opened up the West
land speculator A person who buys land at low prices hoping to sell it in small sections at high prices
Santa Fe Trail A trail established by William Becknell to create trade between Missouri and the capital of the Mexican province of New Mexico
Oregon Trail A trail settlers used to migrate west-from Missouri to the territory west of the Rockies and north of California
Mormon A member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
Stephen Austin He established an American colony in Texas, fulfilling his father's dream
Tejano A person of Spanish heritage whose home is Texas
Antonio López de Santa Anna Mexican president and general who governed the Texas colony and fought to keep it under Mexican rule
Sam Houston Appointed commander of the Texas army when American settlers decided to declare Texas an independent republic
Battle of the Alamo An 1836 battle in which 183 Texans and 25 Tejanos lost to a Mexican army of thousands after 12 days of fighting
Lone Star Republic The nickname of the Republic of Texas, given in 1836 when Texans raised their first flag
James K. Polk A Democratic candidate, elected 11th president in 1844, and committed to U.S. expansion to Texas and Oregon
manifest destiny The belief that the U.S. was destined to stretch across the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
Bear Flag Revolt The 1846 rebellion by Americans against Mexican rule in California
Treaty of Guadalupe de Hidalgo The 1848 treaty that ended the U.S. war with Mexico and set the Rio Grande as the nation's border
Mexican Cession A vast region given up by Mexico in 1848, including three present-day western states and parts of four more
forty-niner A person who went to California to find gold, starting in 1849
Californio Settler of Spanish or Mexican descent who lived in California, mostly on huge cattle ranches
John Sutter The man who persuaded the Mexican governor to grant him land on which John Marshall later found gold
California gold rush Event that began in 1849 after gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill
immigrant A person who settles in a new country
steerage The deck on a ship where immigrants found cheap passage and deplorable conditions
push-pull factors Term for the forces that make people emigrate from their native lands and influence them to settle in new places
famine A severe food shortage
prejudice A negative opinion of a group of people, not based on facts
nativists Native-born Americans who joined the 1850s Know-Nothing Party; discriminated against Catholics and the foreign-born
romanticism A European artistic movement that stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion
transcendentalism A 19th-century philosophy that taught that the spiritual world is more important than the physical world
civil disobedience Peacefully refusing to obey laws one considers unjust
revival A meeting designed to reawaken religious faith
Second Great Awakening The renewal of religious faith in the 1790s and early 1800s that stressed that anyone could choose salvation
temperance movement A campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol
labor union An organization of workers who contracts for better working conditions
strike To stop work; a strategy workers use to force employers to meet their labor demands
abolition The movement to end slavery
Frederick Douglass Public speaker and lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society; he published an autobiography of his slave experiences
Sojourner Truth An abolitionist speaker who drew huge crowds and who won a court battle to regain her son from slavery
Underground Railroad A series of escape routes used by slaves heading to the North from the South
Seneca Falls Convention A women's rights convention planned by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and held in New York in 1848
suffrage The right to vote
Wilmot Proviso An 1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Free-Soil Party The political party that was dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
Stephen A. Douglas Illinois senator who argued the issue of slavery in a series of political debates with Abraham Lincoln
Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay's plan to resolve the imbalance of power between North and South should California be admitted as a free state
Uncle Tom's Cabin A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 that portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
Fugitive Slave Act An 1850 law passed to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves
popular sovereignty A system in which residents vote to decide an issue
Kansas-Nebraska Act An 1854 law that established the Kansas and Nebraska territories and designated them as open to a vote on slavery
John Brown An extreme abolitionist who avenged the Sack of Lawrence by murdering five proslavery people in Kansas Territory
"Bleeding Kansas" What Kansas Territory came to be called when violence and civil war broke out over the issue of slavery
Republican Party The political party formed in 1854 by the Northern Whigs and other opponents of slavery in the territories
John C. Frémont A national hero and explorer of the West nominated by the Republican party to run for President in 1856
Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court case that ruled against a slave who sued for his freedom, saying that he was not a U.S. citizen
Abraham Lincoln Elected the 16th U.S. president, he hoped to preserve the Union and stop the spread of slavery
Harpers Ferry Site of a federal arsenal in Virginia that was captured in 1859 during an antislavery revolt led by John Brown
platform A political party's statement of beliefs
secede To withdraw, as a state from the Union
Confederate States of America The alliance formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession from the Union
Jefferson Davis Chosen president of the Confederacy
Crittenden Plan A compromise that might have prevented secession, introduced in Congress in 1861 by a Senator from Kentucky
Abraham Lincoln Elected the 16th U.S. president, he hoped to preserve the Union and stop the spread of slavery
civil war Armed conflict between two sides from the same region or country
the Union Term for the states loyal to the United States of America during the Civil War
Fort Sumter South Carolina fort under federal control that was attacked by the South, marking the start of the Civil War
Robert E. Lee Virginia resident, talented military leader, and commanding general of the Army of Northern Virginia
border state Term for Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri-slave states that bordered free states and did not secede from the Union
King Cotton A term coined to show that Southern cotton was important to the world market and to the Southern economy
Anaconda Plan Economic strategy to bring Southern states back into the Union by cutting off the South's coastline and controlling the Mississippi River
blockade When armed forces prevent the transportation of goods or people into or out of an area
First Battle of Bull Run An 1861 battle of the Civil War in which the South shocked the North with a victory
hygiene Conditions and practices that promote health
casualties Number of people killed or injured
rifle A gun with a grooved barrel that causes a bullet to spin through the air, giving it more distance and accuracy
minié ball A bullet with a hollow base that would cause a rifle to shoot farther and more accurately than a musket
ironclad Warship that replaced wooden ships; this "horrible mechanical monster" had an iron hull and a rotating gun turret
Ulysses S. Grant Victorious Civil War general in the West who became commander of Union armies in 1864 and president in 1869
Battle of Shiloh An 1862 battle in which the Union forced the South to retreat, but with over 23,000 casualties for both sides
cavalry Soldiers on horseback
Seven Days' Battles An 1862 week-long battle in which the Confederacy saved the Southern capital, Richmond, from Union troops
Battle of Antietam The bloodiest battle of the Civil War, in which neither side advanced, but 25,000 men were killed or wounded
Abraham Lincoln The first American president to be assassinated
Frederick Douglass Powerful public speaker who advised President Lincoln, "Sound policy . . . demands the instant liberation of every slave in the rebel states."
Emancipation Proclamation An executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing all slaves in Confederate territory
54th Massachusetts Regiment One of the first African-American regiments organized to fight for the Union in the Civil War
Jefferson Davis He was chosen to be president of the Confederacy
Copperheads Abraham Lincoln's main political opponents; Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South
conscription Laws that required men to serve in the military, also known as the draft
bounty A $300 cash payment given to those who volunteered to serve in the Union military
income tax Tax on earnings
greenbacks Paper currency issued by the federal government during the Civil War
Clara Barton She organized a Civil War relief agency and later founded the American Red Cross
Battle of Gettysburg An 1863 Civil War battle in which the Union victory ended Lee's hopes for a Confederate victory in the North
Pickett's Charge A failed, deadly, direct attack on Union troops led by General Pickett during the Battle of Gettysburg
Ulysses S. Grant Union general who won important victories in the West, opening up the Mississippi River for travel deep into the South
Robert E. Lee He lost Richmond, the Confederate capital, to General Grant on April 3, 1865 after a 10-month siege.
Siege of Vicksburg An 1863 Union victory in Mississippi, in a town that was the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River
Gettysburg Address President Lincoln's 1863 speech to dedicate a cemetery; in it he said we are a nation where "all men are created equal"
William Tecumseh Sherman A Union general who waged total war, destroying rail lines and crops on his way to capture Atlanta
Appomattox Court House The Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Thirteenth Amendment The amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1865, banning slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S.
Radical Republicans Congressmen who supported using federal power to rebuild the South and give African Americans full citizenship
Reconstruction The process the U.S. government used to readmit Confederate states to the Union after the Civil War
Freedmen's Bureau Federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War
Andrew Johnson President after Lincoln's assassination, he vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866; Congress voted to override the President's veto
black codes Laws passed by Southern states that limited the freedom of former slaves
civil rights Rights granted to all citizens
Fourteenth Amendment The 1868 constitutional amendment giving all people born in the United States citizenship and "equal protection of the laws"
scalawags Poor white farmers in the South, chosen to draft state constitutions and labeled "scoundrels" for supporting Radical Republicans
carpetbaggers Name for delegates chosen to draft new Southern state constitutions who were newly arrived white Northerners
impeachment The process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing, or improper conduct, while in office
freedmen's school A school set up to educate newly freed African Americans
contract system The wage-earning work system that replaced slave labor on Southern plantations during Reconstruction
sharecropping A system in which landowners gave workers land, seed, and tools in return for part of the crops they raised
Ku Klux Klan A secret group formed in 1866 who used arson and murder to restrict the rights of African Americans
lynch To kill a person as punishment for a supposed crime, without a trial
Robert B. Elliott In 1874, an African-American congressman from South Carolina; later elected the state's attorney general
Ulysses S. Grant 1868-1876 president who passed successful anti-Klan laws but whose corrupt administration caused a split in the Republican Party
Fifteenth Amendment An 1870 amendment that said reasons of race, color, or servitude could not keep voting rights from citizens
Panic of 1873 Financial crisis in which banks closed and the stock market collapsed
Compromise of 1877 The agreement that gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency and removed federal troops from the South
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