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History 176 final

"kitchen debate" verbal sparring, slugfest of words between Nixon and Krushchev at American National Exhibition Moscow July 1959
Sun Belt west and southwest pleasant natural environment with nearly eight million homes air conditioned drew many to the area florida to california
Interstate Highway and Defense system act of 1956 essential to national defense and impetus to economic growth authorized construction of naational highway system, with fed. gov. paying most of costs through increased fuel and vehicle taxes
brinkmanship Eisenhower's "new look" in foreign policy America's willingness to "go to the brink" of war with its intimidating nuclear weapons would block soviet efforts to expand
MAD mutually assured destruction stand-off of nuclear weapons between Soviets and americans
domino theory eisenhower viewing communism in vietnam as truman did greece and turkey "knock over the first, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly"
Geneva Accords truce signed by France temporarily partitioned Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel, seperating vietming in the north from the puppet government established by french in the south
Fidel Castro led uprising in 1959 that drove out the us supported dictator fulgencio Batista and led the CIA to warn eishenhower that "communists and other extreme radicals appear to have penetrated the Castro movement"
Mohammed Mossadegh left-leaning democratic prime ministerr of Iran accepted support from the Iranian Communist Party and challenged the power of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran's hereditary leader who favored foreign oil interests and Iranian wealthy classes
Eisenhower doctrine march 1957 joint resolution approving aid to any Middle Eastern nation "requesting assistance against armed aggression from any country controlled by international communism" sent aid to Jordan in 1957 and troops to Lebanon in 1958
Nikita Khrushchev leader after stalin's death in 1953 like eisenhower, wanted to reduce defense spending and the threat of nuclear devestation met with eisenhower in geneva in 1955 at first summit conference since ww2 symbolized "new spirit of conciliation and cooperati
Sputnik October 1957 Soviets launch the first artificial satellite to circle the earth. US not until jan 1958
Levvitown Builder William J Levitt adapted the factory assembly-line process each worker could move house to house doing same single job 1949 families purchased mass-produced houses in 17000-home development (called levvitown) Long island New York
Hernandez v Texas Mexican American citizensf gain small victory in struggle for civil rights convicted for murder, american gi forum and league of united latin-amaerican citizens appealed that persons of Mexican origin had been routinely excluded from jury service
Betty Friedan gave a name to idealization of women's domestic roles in 1963 book THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE. criticized scholars ads and pub officials for assuming that biological diff. dictated a diff roles for men and women
baby boom birthrate soared between 1945 and 1965 peakng in 1957 with 4.3 million births, baby boom generation
Billy Graham Baptist minister noted for nationwide crusades of evangelism religion calmed anxiety in nuclear age, graham made cold war holy war, labeling communism "a great sinister anti-christ movement masterminded by satan"
Alfred Kinsey Published SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN MALE 1948 AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN FEMALE 1953 that uncovered a surprising range of sexual conduct insisted on the natural variability of human sexuality and refused to make moral judgements
Beat generation small group of primarily male literary figures based in New York City and San Fransisco most blatant revolt against conventionality rejected nearly everything in mainstream culture (patriotism, consumerism, technology, conventional fam life, discipline)
Brown v Board of Education 1954 punished the schools and pub education for avoiding integration
Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat for white person. violated a local segragation ordinance active in the local NAACP
Montgomery Bus Boycott MIA montgomery improvement association organized year long bus boycott, arranged volunteer car pools and marshaled more than 90% of black community to sustain it
SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference Owed much of its success to Ella Baker, activist came from NY to manage office in Atlanta. established to coordinate loval protests against segregation and disfranchisment
lyndon b johnson assumed presidency with a wealth of political experience house of reps 1937 senate 1948 lacked eloquence,enticed, manuever and threaten legislators to support objectives
Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed by johnson, proposed by Kennedy in response to black protest required every ounce of johnsons political skill to pry sufficient votes from Repubs to balance out democrats
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 authorized 10 new programs, allocation $800 million for the first year (1% of fed budget) targeted children and youths , college students and the unemployed opening shot to war on poverty
VISTA The Volunteers in Service to AMerica paid modest wages to volunteers working with the disadvantaged and a legal services progam provided lawyers for poor
War on Poverty congress doubled funding in 1965, enacted new economic development measures for depressed regions, and authorized more than $1 billion to improve nation's slums
War on poverty continued new food stamp program, rent supplements that provided alternatives to public housing, movement of welfare mothers called National Welfare Rights Organization pushed AFDC to ease restrictions on welfare recipients 1 mil 1960 to 3 mil 1972 90% benefited
Medicare/medicaid provides elderly with universal compulsory medical insurance financed largely through social security taxes/authorized federal grants to supplement state-paid medical care for poor people
Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests for voting and authorized federal intervention to ensure access to the voting booth
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 abolished fifty-year-old quotas based on national origins that discriminated against immigrants from areas outside northern and western Europe maintained caps on the total number of immigrants and limited those from western hemisphere
Baker v Carr 1963 one person one vote
Warren court reformed criminal justice system using 14th amendment to overturn a series of convictions on the grounds that the accused had been deprived of "life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"
Gedeon v Wainwright 1963 lawyer provided if not affordable for defendent
Miranda v Arizona 1966 will be read your rights when arrested
Abington School District v Schempp 1963 seperation of church and state
Martin Luther King Jr 11955-1956 bus boycott brought about this leader
SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinaing Committee "snick" embraced civil disobedience and the nonviolence principles of MLK jr, confront opposers and stand up for rights
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom august 1963 largest demonstration drew 250000 peoole to nation's capital King stood on lincoln memorial and gave "i have a dream" speech
Missippi Freedom Summer Project 1964 mobolized more than a thousand nourthern college students to conduct voter registration drives
Selma march March 1965 alabama state troopers used fierce force to turn back a voting rights march from Selma to Montgomery named "bloody sunday" Johnson called up national gaurd to protect marchers
Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned racial discrimination in housing and jury selection and authorized federal intervention when states failed to protect civil rights workers from violence
Malcom X attracted large following for black pride and autonomy, seperation from the "corrupt white society", and self defense against white violence worked for Nation of Islam drawing nationalism for black muslims
Stokely Carmicheal June 1966 greenwood missippi sncc chairman gave new name to ideas by malcom x "we want black power" called integration "a subterfuge for the maintenance of white supremecy" rejected assimilation(imposedwhitesupremacy"
AIM American Indian Movement 1968 founded by dennis banks and george mitchell sought to protect Indians from police harrassment, secure antipoverty funds, and establish survival schools, to teach indian history and values
Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta organized movement to improve the wretched conditions of migrant agriculatural workers chavez organized voter registration drives among mexican americans after wwii both founded united farm workers in 1962
UFW United farm workers chavez headed the union til 1993 mounted a nationwide boycott of california grapes to gain leverage for striking workers politicized Mexican American and improved farmworkers' lives
SDS Student for a Democratic Society aimed to mobilize "New left" on civil right peace and universal ecomomic security most important organization of white student protest during the 1960s
Stonewall riots gay men and women founded a host of new groups ex: Gay Liberation Front, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force 1973
EPA Environmental Protection Agency Nixon created in 1970 this to enforce clean air and water policies and regulate pesticides
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act protected workers against workplace accidents and disease
Clean Air Act of 1970 set national standards for air quality and restricting factory and automobile emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants
PCSW President's commision on the status of women reported widespread discrimination against women and recommended remedies
NOW National Organization Women 1966 created because government's slowness in enforcing Title VII
Betty Friedan outraged, she created NOW along with civil rights activist pauli murray and several union women
ERA 1977 Equal Rights Amendment outlawed differential treatment of men and women under all state and federal laws
Phyllis Schlafly Conservative activist in republican party mobilized thousands of women at the grassroots level who feared that the ERA would devalue their own God-given roles as wives and mothers wanted US to eliminate communism (barry goldwater)
Roe v Wade protects right to abortion
Richard M. Nixon elected in 1968 attacked the great society for "pouring billions of dollars into programs that have failed" promised to represent the "forgotten Americans, the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators" broad understanding of international relations
John F Kennedy moved quickly to pursue containment more aggressively and with more flexible means expanded on nation's ability to fight conventional battles and to engage in guerrilla warfare (attention to space exploration and third world)
Cuban missile crisis 1962 kennedy denied Soviets a nuclear outpost in the western hemisphere, USA taken to brink of war
Bay of Pigs April 17, 1961 1400 anti-castro exiles trained and armed by CIA landed here on south shore of Cuba no popular uprising materialized to support them kennedy refused to provide direct military support, invaders fell to castro humiliating cuba closer sov
Berlin Wall 1961 east germany erected a wall between east and west berlin stimmed tide of migration not until 1972 did superpowers recognize east and west germany as seperate nations and gauranteed western access to west berlin
Peace Corps most dramatic third world inititative in 1961 kennedy borrowed idea from senator Hubert H Humphrey recruited young people to work in developing countries went to work directly with its people open schools, provide basic health care 60000 workers mid197
ICBMs Intercontinental ballistic missile kennedy increased nuclear weapons as defense strategy soviets strengthened icbms and thus the competition began
Ho Chi Minh Trail Hanoi government constructed a network of infiltration routes in neighboring Laos and Cambodia, through which it sent people and supplies to help liberate the south
Agent Orange herbicide sprayed by US pleanes to destroy the vietcong's jungle hideouts and food supply
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution johnson ordered air strikes on torpedo bases and oil storage facilities this granted him authority to take "all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression 1964
Operation Rolling Thunder february 1965 strategy of gradually intensified bombing of North Vietnam less than month later,ordered 1st US troops to South Vietnam. july switched from defense to offense, marked critical turning point making it genuinely america's war
widening war at home SDS recruited 20,000 people for the first major demonstration against the war in Washington DC SDS chapters came to more than 300 colleges
Year of Upheaval 1968 marked violent controntations all around the world. protesting govs from mexico city to paris to tokyo usually led by students in collaboration with workers
Tet Offensive Critical turning point January 30, 1968 North Vietnamese and Vietcong launched attacks on cities and major American base in South displayed the communists' vitality and refusal to be intimidated by US troops present
Tet Offensive continued militarily the enemy suffered 10x as many as ARVN and US soldiers phsycological bad for US underscored the credibility gap between official statements and the war's actual progress
Hubert H Humphrey vice president to kennedy trounced remaining anitiwar candidate McCarthy for democratic nomination had strong reservations about US policy in vietnam
George C Wallace American Independent party nomination to formerr Alabama governer and staunch segregationist appealed to Americans dissatisfaction with reforms and rebellions of 1960s
Henry A kissinger key foreign policy adviser national security advisor under nixon nixon used him to exploit increasing conflict between the Soviet Union and China
detente nixon and kissinger's term for easing conflict with the Soviet Union warming up of US-chinese relations furthered this strategy
SALT strategic arms limitation talks may 1972 societ and us leaders concluded arms limitation treaties that had grown out of this begun in 1969 agreed to limit ABMs to two each
Helsinki Accords signed by us soviet and european leaders in 1975 formally recognized the post-wwii boundaries in europe controversial because acknowledged soviet domination over eastern europe(condition triggered cold war 30 years back)human rights & fundamental freedo
Six-Day War 1967 conflict between israel and arab nations escalated when israel attacked egypt after that nation had massed troops on its border and cut off the sea passage to israel's southern port israel won, twice its size oct 1973 attacked by egypt and syria
Yom Kippur War Nixon administration sided with Israel arab nations retaliated with an oil embargo that created severe shortages in US
Kent State University Ohio National guard troops were dispatched after protesting students burned an old rotc building may 4 at rally, when some students threw rocks at the troops, they fired at the students, killing four and wounding ten
My Lai march 1968 lieutenant william calley had army? kill every inhabitant of the hamlet of My Lai, even though they ad encountered no enemy forces there 400 villagers killed only Calley was convicted of murder
Pentagon papers secret government documents consisting mostly of an internal study of the war begun in 1967 could not stop further publication because it would violate first amendment right
Phyllis Stewart (schlafly) history born in St louis 1924 went thru WashU testing ammunition at a WWII defense plant earned MA in government in 1945 married Fred Schlafly whose anticommunism and antigovernment matched hers activist traveleged and led repub women's organizations
Warren E Burger federal appeals court judge who was a strict constructionist-inclined to interpret the Constitution narrowly and to limit government intervention on behalf of individual rights
Watergate Scandal 5 men working for Nixon's reelection campaign crept into democ party headqrtrs in watergate complex in dc. intended to fix a bug device put in in an earlier break-in, they were found & arrested tried to cover up connection most serious crisis since CW
Gerald R Ford represented michigan in house of reps since 1948, built a reputation as a conservative party loyalist granted nixon pardon for "all offenses which he has commited or may have taken part in" during his presidency provoked outcry from congress and public
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974 established public financing of presidential campaigns and imposed some restrictions on contributions to help prevent the selling of political favors
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. democratic nominee, former governor of georgia considerable appeal as a candidate who carried his own bags, lived modestly, and taught a Bible class at his Baptist church chose Walter F Mondale senator of minnesota as running mate
National Energy Act of 1978 penalized manufacturers of gas-guzzling automobiles and provided other incentives for conservation and development of alternative fuels fell short of long-term comprehensive act
Ronald Reagan oldest (69) candidate ever nominated for presidency chose George H W Bush as running mate in 1980 election. political career took off when elected governor of Cali in 1966 republicans rebelled
supply-side economics new theory that reagan relied on which held that cutting taxes would increase revenue by enabling businesses to expand, encouraging individuals to work harder bc could keep more of earnings, & increase production of goods and services
economic recovery tax act 1981 congress passed the largest tax reduction in US history rates cut from 14% to 11% for lowest income individuals and 70% to 50% for the wealthiest gave corps tax breaks & reduced levies on capital gains, gifts, & inheritances
Iran-Contra scandal sold arms in Iran, in midst of an 8 year war with iraq, while supplying iraq with funds and weapons purpose was to get Iran to pressure Hezbollah to release 7 American hostages held in Lebanon funds from arms sales channeled to aid nicaraguan contras
glasnost greater freedom of expression Gorbachev introduced new elements of free enterprise and proclaimed new era eventually allowed contested elections and challenges to communist rule
Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power of soviet union in 1985 determined to revitalize an inefficient soviet economy incapable of delivering basic consumer goods, hoped to stimulate production and streamline distribution
Colin L Powell army general, reagan's national security adviser endeavored to keep his country out of "halfhearted warfare for halfbaked reasons that American people could not understand or support
George H W Bush anounced his bid for presidency in 1988 election confronted situations that did not fit the simpler free world versus communism framework that had guided foreign policy since WWII only 1 term due to sluggish economy
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 job discrimination agaisnt people with disabilities was now illegal and private businesses and public facilities had to be made handicapped accessible aimid to provide equal opportunity and access for people with disabilities
Saddam Hussein Iraqi dictator that US officials quietly assisted during the Iran-Iraq war begining in 1980 and ended in 1988 sent troops into Kuwait to the south and the invasion neared the Saudi Arabian border, threatening worlds largest oil reserves
Persian Gulf War started in 1990 when saddam hussein ordered an invasion into Kuwait and threatened worlds oil reserves US deployed 400000 soldiers to Saudi Arabia Bush asked congress to declare war and launched Operation Desert storm on jan 17 1991 only 270 us deaths
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton governor of arkansas for 12 years running mate Al gore and he presented themselves as New Democrats and sought to rid the party of its liberal image 1992 election promised to work for the "forgotten middle class" and disavowed the "tax and spend" label
NAFTA 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement eliminated all tariffs and trade barriers among the US, Canada, and Mexico
Kyoto Protocol 1997 about global warning signed by 178 nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions US Bush administration withdrew from this
No Child Left Behind Act 2002 marked greatest change in federal education policy since 1960s and increased federal gov role in pub ed required every school to meet annual testing standards, penalized failing schools, and allowed parents to transfer their children
September 11, 2001 most deadly attack ever launched on american soil 19 terrorists hijacked 4 planes and flew 3 of them into the twin towers of New York's World Trade Center and the pentagon in DC, the fourth crashed in a field in pennsylvania took nearly 2800 lives
Al Qaeda Osama bin Laden's international terrorist network that provided the hijackers technological andvances and increased mobility facilitated worldwide coordination enraged by spread of western goods, culture, and values into muslim world and persian gulf wa
USA Patriot act october 2001 gave gov new powers to monitor suspected terrorists & their associates, including ability to pry personal info about people from library/university/businness while allowing exchange of info between crim invest and foreign threats investigato
Department of Homeland security nov 2002 combined 170000 federal employees from 22 agencies that had responsibilities for various aspects of domestic security many doubts when subagency Federal Emergency Management Agency failed in its response to Hurricane Katrina
Iraq War war endorsed by vice pres Dick Cheney and Sec of Defense Donald H rumsfeld, but not by sec of state colin powell Bush proclaimed a new policy for American security based not on containment but on preemption ended May 1 2003
Barack Obama first black person to head to HARVARD LAW REVIEW promised to work across party lines on a series of reforms in health care, education, and the environment
Created by: arbm9c