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CA Final Exam Terms

Henry George British born social reformist writer Henry George (aided the Grangers—farmer clubs represented at the 1979 convention) and charged railroads with hurting small farmers by corrupting elections, fixing high freight rates, and favoring larger shippers throug
Workingman’s Party Founded by Kearney. Meetings were held on a windswept sand lot that fronted SF city hall. (Mostly Irishmen) Jan. 21 1878, noisy Workingmen’s party held it’s first formal convention (by this time the party had become a force in state politics) By 79’ they
Jack London Beliefs were a combination of realism with romantic strain with a social conscience. Prolific writer turned out more than 50 books filled with adventure, primitive violence, and class struggle. Celebrated author with international fame, he wrote about the
Josiah Royce Harvard philosopher and social reformer born in 1855. Like Henry George Royce published initially in CA. Agreed with George about the abuses of the land monopolists and the railroads. Member of the Harvard University philosophy Faculty, he became both an
Ambrose Bierce “Acid tongued” dominated the CA literary scene for decades with his spicy diatribes. From late 1880s and onwards, he chose many targets from disreputable politicians to untalented young authors. Bierce delivered contemptuous judgments with gusto in The De
Charles Lummis Southwestern author and eccentric Harvard classmate of Theodore Roosevelt. Wrote books of adulation about the leisurely existence that supposedly prevailed in Early CA. Always wore a green corduroy suit with a sombrero and a red sash wrapped around his mi
Ramona Written in 1884 by Helen Hunt Jackson. Called attention to the mistreatment of the remaining Native Americans in California.
John Muir Naturalist (most popular). Scottish born, but educated in the US, Muir spent much of his adult life hiking through the CA backcountry. Became a vigorous defender of its forests, mountains, and wildlife, founding the Sierra Club in 1892. Roosevelt listened
Mussel Slough Dispute over land titles between settlers and the Southern Pacific Railroad. Took place on May 11, 1880 in the central San Joaquin Valley, leaving 7 people dead. Frank Norris’s 1901 novel The Octopus: A story of CA was inspired by this incident.
Hiram Johnson Progressive Republican Jan 3 1911 Popular progressive republican governor of CA (1910-17), won against 4 other candidates and achieved fame in the last days of the SF graft prosecutions. The young age of 40, he undertook 20,000 mile automobile campaign
Abraham Ruef Clever attorney who wore a handlebar mustache, Ruef blackmailed legitimate businesspeople and extorted them through protection rackets. His political machine further forced business owners to purchase licenses to operate liquor, cigar, and gambling establ
Lincoln-Roosevelt League August 1 1907, a new political alignment within the Republican Party, called the California Progressives, formed the Lincoln-Roosevelt League. Founders of the league were liberal Republicans, who fused the names of their greatest party leaders into a symb
Upton Sinclair Eccentric reform writer (90 books). Lost an election in 1920 for a congressional seat. He hosted séances in his home, attracting personalities such as Albert Einstein and Charlie Chaplin. In 1926 and again in 30’, he was the Socialist party candidate fo
Rudolph Spreckels Sugar magnate teamed up with former mayor James D. Phelan to begin a campaign to overthrow Ruef and Schmitz. However, the disastrous earthquake hit SF on April 18 1906.
Ansel Adams One of the best known modern photographer of Yosemite, whose photos were especially sharp and vivid in tone.
Frank Norris Was a spiritual ally of Royce and George. Talented writer known for The Octopus (1901), was based on the Mussel Slough tragedy. Featured the continuing clash between the railroad monopoly and the farmers. Along with his other reform novels, The Octopus wo
Thomas Bard Political leader who assisted in the organization of Vent. County and represented the state in the US Senate from 1900-05. Republican. Known as the “Father of Port. Hueneme” for his efforts in building and expanding the city, as well as the first a nd onl
William Mulholland LA city chief engineer (1904) argued that LA needed to find a new water source. Recommended tapping the distant Owens River in the southern Sierra range. Met with violent criticisms from ranchers and farmers forced to evacuate their valley homes under thr
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