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History Chapter 1-19

artifacts Tools and other objects made by humans
migrate To move from one location to another
culture A way of life shared by people with similar arts, beliefs, and customs
civilization A complex culture characterized by five advanced systems, including city trade centers and specialized jobs
irrigation The practice of bringing water to crops
Mound Builders Early Native Americans who built large earthen structures
technology The use of tools and knowledge to meet human needs
matrilineal A type of society in which ancestry is traced through the mother
Deganawida Peace-seeking Iroquois man of the late 1500s
Iroquois League A 16th century alliance of five Native American groups who lived in the Eastern Woodlands region
Ghana A West African empire in the 8th-11th centuries that grew wealthy through trade
Islam A religion founded by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s, which teaches that there is one God, known as Allah
European Middle Ages A period characterized by feudalism and the manor system
feudalism A system in which a king lets nobles use his land in return for military service and protection of the people
Crusades A series of wars to capture the Holy Lands launched by Europeans in 1096
Renaissance A time of increased interest in art and learning
printing press A machine that mechanically prints pages, invented by Johannes Gutenberg about 1455
Reformation A 16th century religious movement to change the Roman Catholic Church
navigator A person who plans the course of a ship by using instruments to find its position
Christopher Columbus Explorer, financed by Spain to sail across the Atlantic to Asia, but who landed in the Americas
missionary A person sent by the Catholic Church to convert native peoples to Christianity
mercantilism An economic system in which a nation increases its wealth by exporting more than it imports
Amerigo Vespucci An explorer who set out in 1501 for a sea route to Asia, but instead came to a land that was later named for him, America
conquistadors Soldiers who explored the Americas and claimed the land for Spain
Hernando Corts A Spanish soldier who conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico in 1521
Montezuma The Aztec emperor who governed much of Mexico when the Spanish arrived looking for wealth
Henry Hudson An Englishman, sailing for the Dutch, who in 1609 arrived at the coast of present-day New York in his search for Asia
John Cabot He charted a northern route across the Atlantic Ocean in 1497 and landed in Canada, claiming it for England
Spanish Armada A fleet of ships sent by the king of Spain in 1588 to invade England and restore Catholicism
New France A Quebec colony that grew out of a fur-trading post established by the French explorer Samuel de Champlain
encomienda A grant of Native American labor to the Spanish colonists in the Americas
haciendas Large estates created by Spanish rulers to provide food for the Spanish colonies in the Americas
mission Settlement built by the Catholic Church in the Spanish colonies to convert Native Americans to Christianity
plantation A large cash-crop farm
Columbian Exchange The movement of plants, animals, and diseases between the Eastern and Western hemispheres
slavery The practice of holding a person in bondage for labor
African Diaspora The forced removal of Africans from their homelands to serve as slave labor in the Americas
middle passage The part of the triangular trade route that brought captured Africans from Africa to the Americas
slave codes Laws passed by the Spanish government to prevent slave rebellion and to regulate the treatment of slaves
racism The belief that some people are inferior because of their race
Joint-stock company A business or project organized by investors who pool their wealth in order to turn a profit
charter A written contract issued by a government giving the holder the right to establish a colony
Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America
John Smith An adventurer who took control of the colony of Jamestown, announcing "He that will not work shall not eat."
Indentured servant A person who sold his or her labor in exchange for passage to America
House of Burgesses Created in 1619, the first representative assembly in the American colonies
Bacon's Rebellion A 1676 revolt against colonial authority in Jamestown by a group of landless frontier settlers
Pilgrims A group that rejected the Church of England, sailed to the Americas, and founded the Plymouth colony in 1620
Mayflower Compact A pact to obey laws, signed by Plymouth's first colonists, that helped establish the idea of self-government
Puritans These Church of England reformists sailed to the Americas to escape ill treatment from James I
Great Migration The 1630-1640 movement of Puritans from England to settle around the world, including in New England
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Laws written in 1639 by a Puritan colony in Connecticut that expanded the idea of representative government
Roger Williams He set up a colony in Rhode Island that guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Anne Hutchinson She challenged church authority in Massachusetts, was brought to trial, and fled to Rhode Island in 1638.
King Philip's War A 1675-1676 war between the Puritan colonists and the Native Americans over land ownership
Peter Stuyvesant Governor of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, he gave up the city of New Amsterdam to the British in 1664.
proprietary colony A colony with a single owner-for example, New Netherland when the Duke of York drove out the Dutch
William Penn A wealthy Englishman who created a colony for Quakers in America with land given to him by King Charles II
Quakers A religious group with neither ministers nor bibles, who treated Native Americans fairly and welcomed diversity
royal colony A colony ruled by governors appointed by a king
Backcountry The far western region of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies that ran along the Appalachian Mountains
subsistence farm A farm that produces only enough food for a family to eat and trade
triangular trade Term for trading route between Africa, the West Indies, and New England
Navigation Acts Laws passed by Parliament, beginning in 1651, to ensure that England made money from its American colonies' trade
smuggle To illegally import or export goods
cash crop A crop grown by a farmer to be sold rather than for personal use
gristmill A mill in which grain is ground to produce flour or meal
diversity A variety of people
artisan A craftsperson, such as a weaver or a potter, who makes goods by hand
Conestoga wagon A westward-bound produce vehicle with wide wheels, a curved bed, and a canvas cover
indigo A plant grown in the Southern colonies that yields a deep blue dye
Eliza Lucas Supervisor of her father's South Carolina plantation at age 17, she introduced indigo as a successful crop
William Byrd II A member of the House of Burgesses and Virginia's wealthy planter class who wrote about Southern life
overseer A worker hired by a planter to watch over and direct the work of slaves
Stono Rebellion A 1739 uprising of slaves in South Carolina, which led to the tightening of already harsh slave laws
Appalachian Mountains A mountain range that stretches from eastern Canada south to Alabama
fall line The point at which a waterfall prevents large boats from moving farther upriver
piedmont A broad plateau that leads to the foot of a mountain range
clan A large group of families that claim a common ancestor
a buck A deerskin that was a unit of value, or money, in the Backcountry
apprentice A beginner who learns a trade or a craft from an experienced master
Great Awakening A revival of religious feeling in the American colonies during the 1730s and 1740s
Jonathan Edwards A preacher who stressed inner religious emotions with sermons such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
George Whitefield A minister who inspired colonists to help others and raise funds to build a home for orphans
Enlightenment An 18th-century movement that emphasized the use of reason and the scientific method to obtain knowledge
Benjamin Franklin A businessman, inventor, public servant, and scientist who proved lightning was electricity
John Locke An English philosopher who argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property
Magna Carta "Great Charter;" a document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, approved by King John in 1215
Parliament England's chief lawmaking body
Edmund Andros A royal governor of the Dominion of New England who angered colonists by ending representative assemblies
Glorious Revolution The overthrow of English King James II in 1688 and his replacement by William and Mary
English Bill of Rights An agreement signed by William and Mary to respect the rights of English citizens and of Parliament
salutary neglect A hands-off policy of England towards its American colonies during the first half of the 1700s
John Peter Zenger He helped establish freedom of the press after being tried and released for criticizing the governor of New York
French and Indian War A 1754-1763 conflict in North America and part of a worldwide struggle between France and Britain
Albany Plan of Union The first formal proposal to unite the American colonies, put forth by Benjamin Franklin
Battle of Quebec Battle that was a turning point in the French and Indian War, the British defeated the French
Treaty of Paris Treaty that gave North America east of the Mississippi River to Britain and ended French power in North America
Pontiac's Rebellion A 1763 revolt by Native Americans against British forts and American settlers who were moving onto their land
Proclamation of 1763 An order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
King George III British monarch who wanted to keep peace with its Native American allies and enforce the Proclamation of 1763
Quartering Act A law passed by Parliament in 1765 that required colonists to house and keep British soldiers
Stamp Act A law passed by Parliament that required colonists to pay a tax on documents
Patrick Henry A member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who called for resistance to the British-imposed stamp tax
Sons of Liberty A colonial secret society opposed to British policies
writ of assistance A warrant that let British officers enter colonial homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods
Samuel Adams A colonial leader who led a 1767 boycott of British goods and urged colonists to resist British control
Boston Massacre In 1770, a violent fight between British soldiers and colonists where five colonists were killed
committees of correspondence Groups of people in the colonies who exchanged letters on colonial affairs
Boston Tea Party A 1773 protest of the Tea Act where colonists dumped 342 chests of tea into a harbor
militia A force of armed civilians who pledged to defend their community during the American Revolution
Intolerable Acts A series of laws enacted in 1774 to punish Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party
First Continental Congress A 1774 meeting of delegates from all colonies except Georgia to uphold colonial rights
Lexington and Concord Massachusetts' locations of the first battles of the American Revolution
Loyalist Term for American colonist who supported the British in the American Revolution
Patriot Term for American colonist who sided with the rebels in the American Revolution
artillery Cannons or large guns
Second Continental Congress May, 1775 assembly that authorized the Continental Army and approved the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence The 1776 document in which the colonies declared independence from Britain
Thomas Jefferson A respected political leader and thinker who was chosen to write the Declaration of Independence
George Washington Commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and the first president of the United States
mercenary A professional solder hired to fight for a foreign country
strategy An overall plan of action
rendezvous A prearranged meeting, often an assembly point for troops
Battles of Saratoga A series of conflicts that ended in victory for the Continental Army, and a Revolutionary War turning point
ally A country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal
Marquis de Lafayette A French nobleman who believed in the American cause and served as a commander under Washington
bayonet A long steel knife attached to the end of a gun for hand-to-hand combat
Valley Forge Camp where Washington's army suffered from cold and hunger; became a symbol of the hardships of the War
desert To abandon military duty without intending to return
privateer A privately owned ship that has governmental permission to attack an enemy's merchant ships
John Paul Jones Continental Naval officer who patrolled the English coast and won a battle against the British warship Serapis
Lord Cornwallis British general who fought in the South during the Revolutionary War and who surrendered in1781
guerrillas Soldiers who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks
pacifist A person morally opposed to war
Battle of Yorktown The last major battle of the Revolutionary War which resulted in the surrender of the British forces in 1781
Treaty of Paris of 1783 The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, confirmed the independence of the U.S., and set its boundaries
republicanism The belief in a government in which decisions are made by elected or appointed officials
Elizabeth Freeman In 1781 she helped to end slavery in Massachusetts by suing for her freedom in court and winning
Richard Allen Preacher who helped start the Free African Society; founded the first African Methodist Episcopal Church
Wilderness Road The trail into Kentucky that woodsman Daniel Boone helped to build
republic A government in which people choose representatives to govern for them
Articles of Confederation The first plan for a national government; a 1777 document adopted by the Continental Congress
tyranny Oppressive rule by a country's leader or its government
Land Ordinance of 1785 Legislation that divided the land west of the Appalachian Mountains into six-square-mile plots
Northwest Territory Region northwest of the Ohio River; Congress divided land into sections and sold them to settlers
Northwest Ordinance A law that set conditions for the settlement and government of the Northwest Territory
Shays's Rebellion An uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers in 1787
Constitutional Convention A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation
James Madison "Father of the Constitution," for his contributions to the Constitutional Convention
Virginia Plan A proposed plan for a national government that called for three branches and a two-house legislature
New Jersey Plan A proposed plan of government that called for a one-house legislature, in which each state would have one vote
Great Compromise An agreement to establish a two-house legislature with different forms of representation
Three-Fifths Compromise An agreement to count three-fifths of the slave population for determining representation and taxation
federalism A system of government in which power is shared between the central government and the states
Federalists People in favor of the Constitution; believed in shared power between national and state governments
Antifederalists People who opposed the Constitution; feared powerful national government and loss of states' rights
The Federalist papers Essays that appeared in New York newspapers written in support of the Constitution
George Mason A Virginia delegate who refused to vote for ratification of the Constitution until a bill of rights was added
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution that consist of a formal list of citizens' rights and freedoms
inaugurate To swear in or to induct into office
judiciary A system of courts and judges
Federal Judiciary Act Passed by Congress to create a court system, including a six-member Supreme Court and lower federal courts
cabinet Group of president-appointed heads of departments; created by Congress to help the president
tariff A tax on imported goods
national bank An institution Alexander Hamilton wanted to create to aid the new nation's economy
Battle of Fallen Timbers The 1794 clash over the Northwest Territory in which the federal army defeated the Native Americans
Treaty of Greenville An agreement signed by twelve tribes ceding much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. government
Whiskey Rebellion Farmers' protest of the government's tax on whiskey, a product vital to the economy of the backcountry
French Revolution A violent uprising of French citizens demanding liberty and equality, inspired by the American Revolution
neutral A country is this when it does not take sides in other nations' conflicts
Jay's Treaty The agreement with Britain that ended the dispute over American shipping during the French Revolution
Pinckney's Treaty Pact with Spain to reduce tensions along the frontier, setting the 31st parallel as the southern U.S. border
foreign policy Relations with governments of other countries
political party An organization that promotes its ideas, influences government, and elects candidates for office
Federalist Party Group that supported a strong national government, a national bank, and loose construction of the Constitution
Democratic-Republican Party Group that supported a limited national government and strict construction of the Constitution
XYZ Affair A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
Alien and Sedition Acts A series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the United States
states' rights Theory that claimed that states had rights that the federal government could not violate
radical A person who takes extreme political positions
John Marshall Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed in 1801; upheld federal authority and strengthened federal courts
Marbury v. Madison An 1803 Supreme Court case that established judicial review
unconstitutional A law or practice that contradicts the law of the Constitution
judicial review The principal that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution
Louisiana Purchase President Jefferson's 1803 purchase of territory from France that doubled the size of the United States
Meriwether Lewis Captain chosen by Jefferson to lead the Corps of Discovery's exploration of the Louisiana Territory
William Clark Corps of Discovery officer who selected the expedition team; a diplomat, map-maker, fort-builder, artist
Lewis and Clark expedition Name for the 1804 exploration of the Louisiana Territory and river routes to the Pacific Ocean
Sacagawea A Shoshone woman whose knowledge and skills were of great help to the Lewis and Clark expedition
Zebulon Pike Explorer of the southern part of the Louisiana Territory, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains
impressment Between 1803 and 1812, British policy of seizing American sailors by force to serve in the military
Embargo Act of 1807 U.S. law declaring foreign ports off-limits to American ships and closing American ports to British ships
Tecumseh Shawnee chief who led Native-American resistance to white rule in the Ohio River Valley
War Hawk Term for a westerner who called for and supported the War of 1812
War of 1812 U.S.-British conflict over Britain's interference in U.S. affairs in the early 19th century
Oliver Hazard Perry Officer who led the U.S. to its most important naval victory during the War of 1812, on Lake Erie
Battle of the Thames An American victory in the War of 1812 that ended the British threat to the Northwest Territory
Francis Scott Key The writer of the U.S. national anthem, who composed it while watching the all-night battle at Fort McHenry
Treaty of Ghent 1814 treaty that ended the War of 1812, but did not resolve trade disputes or provide for land exchanges
Samuel Slater A 1789 immigrant from England who built the first successful water-powered textile mill in America
Industrial Revolution A time in the late 18th century when factory machines replaced hand tools and large-scale manufacturing replaced farming
factory system A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
Lowell Mills Name of Massachusetts' textile industry which hired women and girls to work 12-hour days
interchangeable part A machine part that is exactly like another part
Robert Fulton Inventor of a steamboat that could move against the current of a strong wind and thus improved traveling time
Samuel F. B. Morse Inventor of the telegraph, a machine that uses electricity along a wire to send messages over long distances
steel plow John Deere's invention that helped farmers plow the rich heavy soil of the Midwest and increase production
Eli Whitney Inventor of a machine for cleaning cotton that changed Southern life
cotton gin A machine invented in 1793 that cleaned cotton much faster and far more efficiently than human workers
spiritual A religious folk song, often created and sung by African Americans
Nat Turner Leader of an 1831 armed revolt against slavery in Virginia
nationalism Feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
Henry Clay He was a Kentucky representative, strong nationalist, and promoter of a plan to strengthen and unify the U.S.
American System A plan introduced in 1815 to make the United States economically self-sufficient
Erie Canal Completed in 1825, this waterway connected New York City and Buffalo, New York, improving U.S. transportation
James Monroe He won the presidential election of 1816 as a Democratic-Republican, helped by the rise in nationalism
sectionalism Loyalty to the interests of one's own region above loyalty to the interests of the nation as a whole
Missouri Compromise A series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Monroe Doctrine A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the Western Hemisphere, announced in 1823
John Quincy Adams New England's choice for president in the fiercely disputed race of 1824, he became the sixth U.S. president
Andrew Jackson A military hero, candidate in the 1824 presidential election, and winner of the 1828 presidential election
Jacksonian Democracy The idea of spreading political power to all the people, thereby ensuring majority rule
spoils system The practice of giving government jobs to political backers or supporters of elected public officials
Sequoya A Cherokee who invented a writing system, hoping that literacy could help the Cherokee keep their independence
Indian Removal Act An 1830 act that gave the government power to negotiate treaties to force Native Americans to relocate west
Indian Territory Present-day Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska to which Native Americans were sent under U.S. treaties
Trail of Tears The 1838-1839 deadly journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory
John C. Calhoun A leader in Congress and advocate of a strong central government who later became a champion of states' rights
Tariff of Abominations An 1828 law that upset Southerners by raising the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods
doctrine of nullification The right of a state to reject a federal law that it considers unconstitutional
Webster-Hayne debate An 1830 debate between a senator from Massachusetts and a senator from North Carolina over nullification
Daniel Webster "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" said this powerful senator in an 1830 speech on states' rights
secession Term for a state's withdrawal from the Union
inflation When an economy experiences an increase in prices and a decrease in the value of money
Martin Van Buren Vice-president to Andrew Jackson and elected president in 1836, he inherited Jackson's puffed-up prosperity
Panic of 1837 A time when economic fears prompted people to demand that banks exchange their paper money for gold and silver
depression A severe economic slump
Whig Party Political party formed to oppose Jackson's policies and the political power held by the chief executive
William Henry Harrison Whig Party candidate for the 1840 presidential race and military hero who lacked strong political views
mountain man Term for fur trapper or explorer who found trails through the Rocky Mountains and opened up the West
land speculator A person who buys land at low prices hoping to sell it in small sections at high prices
Santa Fe Trail A trail established by William Becknell to create trade between Missouri and the capital of the Mexican province of New Mexico
Oregon Trail A trail settlers used to migrate west-from Missouri to the territory west of the Rockies and north of California
Mormon A member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
Stephen Austin He established an American colony in Texas, fulfilling his father's dream
Tejano A person of Spanish heritage whose home is Texas
Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna Mexican president and general who governed the Texas colony and fought to keep it under Mexican rule
Sam Houston Appointed commander of the Texas army when American settlers decided to declare Texas an independent republic
Battle of the Alamo An 1836 battle in which 183 Texans and 25 Tejanos lost to a Mexican army of thousands after 12 days of fighting
Lone Star Republic The nickname of the Republic of Texas, given in 1836 when Texans raised their first flag
James K. Polk A Democratic candidate, elected 11th president in 1844, and committed to U.S. expansion to Texas and Oregon
manifest destiny The belief that the U.S. was destined to stretch across the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
Bear Flag Revolt The 1846 rebellion by Americans against Mexican rule in California
Treaty of Guadalupe de Hidalgo The 1848 treaty that ended the U.S. war with Mexico and set the Rio Grande as the nation's border
Mexican Cession A vast region given up by Mexico in 1848, including three present-day western states and parts of four more
forty-niner A person who went to California to find gold, starting in 1849
Californio Settler of Spanish or Mexican descent who lived in California, mostly on huge cattle ranches
John Sutter The man who persuaded the Mexican governor to grant him land on which John Marshall later found gold
California gold rush Event that began in 1849 after gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill
immigrant A person who settles in a new country
steerage The deck on a ship where immigrants found cheap passage and deplorable conditions
push-pull factors Term for the forces that make people emigrate from their native lands and influence them to settle in new places
famine A severe food shortage
prejudice A negative opinion of a group of people, not based on facts
nativists Native-born Americans who joined the 1850s Know-Nothing Party; discriminated against Catholics and the foreign-born
romanticism A European artistic movement that stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion
transcendentalism A 19th-century philosophy that taught that the spiritual world is more important than the physical world
civil disobedience Peacefully refusing to obey laws one considers unjust
revival A meeting designed to reawaken religious faith
Second Great Awakening The renewal of religious faith in the 1790s and early 1800s that stressed that anyone could choose salvation
temperance movement A campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol
labor union An organization of workers who contracts for better working conditions
strike To stop work; a strategy workers use to force employers to meet their labor demands
abolition The movement to end slavery
Frederick Douglass Public speaker and lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society; he published an autobiography of his slave experiences
Sojourner Truth An abolitionist speaker who drew huge crowds and who won a court battle to regain her son from slavery
Underground Railroad A series of escape routes used by slaves heading to the North from the South
Seneca Falls Convention A women's rights convention planned by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and held in New York in 1848
suffrage The right to vote
Wilmot Proviso An 1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Free-Soil Party The political party that was dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
Stephen A. Douglas Illinois senator who argued the issue of slavery in a series of political debates with Abraham Lincoln
Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay's plan to resolve the imbalance of power between North and South should California be admitted as a free state
Uncle Tom's Cabin A novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 that portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
Fugitive Slave Act An 1850 law passed to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves
popular sovereignty A system in which residents vote to decide an issue
Kansas-Nebraska Act An 1854 law that established the Kansas and Nebraska territories and designated them as open to a vote on slavery
John Brown An extreme abolitionist who avenged the Sack of Lawrence by murdering five proslavery people in Kansas Territory
"Bleeding Kansas" What Kansas Territory came to be called when violence and civil war broke out over the issue of slavery
Republican Party The political party formed in 1854 by the Northern Whigs and other opponents of slavery in the territories
John C. Frmont A national hero and explorer of the West nominated by the Republican party to run for President in 1856
Dred Scott v. Sandford Supreme Court case that ruled against a slave who sued for his freedom, saying that he was not a U.S. citizen
Abraham Lincoln Elected the 16th U.S. president, he hoped to preserve the Union and stop the spread of slavery
Harpers Ferry Site of a federal arsenal in Virginia that was captured in 1859 during an antislavery revolt led by John Brown
platform A political party's statement of beliefs
secede To withdraw, as a state from the Union
Confederate States of America The alliance formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession from the Union
Jefferson Davis Chosen president of the Confederacy
Crittenden Plan A compromise that might have prevented secession, introduced in Congress in 1861 by a Senator from Kentucky
Abraham Lincoln Elected the 16th U.S. president, he hoped to preserve the Union and stop the spread of slavery
civil war Armed conflict between two sides from the same region or country
the Union Term for the states loyal to the United States of America during the Civil War
Fort Sumter South Carolina fort under federal control that was attacked by the South, marking the start of the Civil War
Robert E. Lee Virginia resident, talented military leader, and commanding general of the Army of Northern Virginia
border state Term for Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri-slave states that bordered free states and did not secede from the Union
King Cotton A term coined to show that Southern cotton was important to the world market and to the Southern economy
Anaconda Plan Economic strategy to bring Southern states back into the Union by cutting off the South's coastline and controlling the Mississippi River
blockade When armed forces prevent the transportation of goods or people into or out of an area
First Battle of Bull Run An 1861 battle of the Civil War in which the South shocked the North with a victory
hygiene Conditions and practices that promote health
casualties Number of people killed or injured
rifle A gun with a grooved barrel that causes a bullet to spin through the air, giving it more distance and accuracy
mini ball A bullet with a hollow base that would cause a rifle to shoot farther and more accurately than a musket
ironclad Warship that replaced wooden ships; this "horrible mechanical monster" had an iron hull and a rotating gun turret
Ulysses S. Grant Victorious Civil War general in the West who became commander of Union armies in 1864 and president in 1869
Battle of Shiloh An 1862 battle in which the Union forced the South to retreat, but with over 23,000 casualties for both sides
cavalry Soldiers on horseback
Seven Days' Battles An 1862 week-long battle in which the Confederacy saved the Southern capital, Richmond, from Union troops
Battle of Antietam The bloodiest battle of the Civil War, in which neither side advanced, but 25,000 men were killed or wounded
Abraham Lincoln The first American president to be assassinated
Frederick Douglass Powerful public speaker who advised President Lincoln, "Sound policy . . . demands the instant liberation of every slave in the rebel states."
Emancipation Proclamation An executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing all slaves in Confederate territory
54th Massachusetts Regiment One of the first African-American regiments organized to fight for the Union in the Civil War
Jefferson Davis He was chosen to be president of the Confederacy
Copperheads Abraham Lincoln's main political opponents; Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South
conscription Laws that required men to serve in the military, also known as the draft
bounty A $300 cash payment given to those who volunteered to serve in the Union military
income tax Tax on earnings
greenbacks Paper currency issued by the federal government during the Civil War
Clara Barton She organized a Civil War relief agency and later founded the American Red Cross
Battle of Gettysburg An 1863 Civil War battle in which the Union victory ended Lee's hopes for a Confederate victory in the North
Pickett's Charge A failed, deadly, direct attack on Union troops led by General Pickett during the Battle of Gettysburg
Ulysses S. Grant Union general who won important victories in the West, opening up the Mississippi River for travel deep into the South
Robert E. Lee He lost Richmond, the Confederate capital, to General Grant on April 3, 1865 after a 10-month siege.
Siege of Vicksburg An 1863 Union victory in Mississippi, in a town that was the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River
Gettysburg Address President Lincoln's 1863 speech to dedicate a cemetery; in it he said we are a nation where "all men are created equal"
William Tecumseh Sherman A Union general who waged total war, destroying rail lines and crops on his way to capture Atlanta
Appomattox Court House The Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Thirteenth Amendment The amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1865, banning slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S.
Radical Republicans Congressmen who supported using federal power to rebuild the South and give African Americans full citizenship
Reconstruction The process the U.S. government used to readmit Confederate states to the Union after the Civil War
Freedmen's Bureau Federal agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War
Andrew Johnson President after Lincoln's assassination, he vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866; Congress voted to override the President's veto
black codes Laws passed by Southern states that limited the freedom of former slaves
civil rights Rights granted to all citizens
Fourteenth Amendment The 1868 constitutional amendment giving all people born in the United States citizenship and "equal protection of the laws"
scalawags Poor white farmers in the South, chosen to draft state constitutions and labeled "scoundrels" for supporting Radical Republicans
carpetbaggers Name for delegates chosen to draft new Southern state constitutions who were newly arrived white Northerners
impeachment The process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing, or improper conduct, while in office
freedmen's school A school set up to educate newly freed African Americans
contract system The wage-earning work system that replaced slave labor on Southern plantations during Reconstruction
sharecropping A system in which landowners gave workers land, seed, and tools in return for part of the crops they raised
Ku Klux Klan A secret group formed in 1866 who used arson and murder to restrict the rights of African Americans
lynch To kill a person as punishment for a supposed crime, without a trial
Robert B. Elliott In 1874, an African-American congressman from South Carolina; later elected the state's attorney general
Ulysses S. Grant 1868-1876 president who passed successful anti-Klan laws but whose corrupt administration caused a split in the Republican Party
Fifteenth Amendment An 1870 amendment that said reasons of race, color, or servitude could not keep voting rights from citizens
Panic of 1873 Financial crisis in which banks closed and the stock market collapsed
Compromise of 1877 The agreement that gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency and removed federal troops from the South
frontier Unsettled or sparsely settled area of North America occupied largely by Native Americans
boomtown A town that has a sudden burst of economic or population growth
long drive Taking cattle by foot to a cow town along the railway
vaquero The first cowhand, who came from Mexico with the Spaniards in the 1500s
vigilante A person willing to take the law into his or her own hands
reservation Land set aside by the U.S. government for Native American tribes
Sand Creek Massacre An 1864 attack in which more than 150 Cheyenne men, women, and children were killed by the Colorado militia
Battle of the Little Bighorn An 1876 battle in which Sioux and Cheyenne wiped out an entire force of U.S. troops led by George A. Custer
Wounded Knee Massacre The massacre by U.S. soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1890
Dawes Act A law, enacted in 1887, that distributed reservation land to individual owners
homestead A piece of land and the house on it
Mexicano A person of Spanish descent whose ancestors has come from Mexico and had settled in the Southwest
William "Buffalo Bill" Cody A buffalo hunter turned showman who brought the West to the rest of the world through his Wild West show
buffalo soldier A name given by Native Americans to African Americans serving in the U.S. army in the West
Homestead Act An 1862 law that gave 160 acres of land free to anyone who agreed to live on it and improve it for five years
sodbuster A farmer on the frontier who built a home from the thickly matted top layer of prairie soil
Grange Formed in 1867 by farmers to meet farm families' social needs and led to formation of the economic cooperative
Populist Party Also called the People's Party, formed by farm groups in the 1890s to get policies that would raise crop prices
gold standard A policy under which the government backs every dollar with a certain amount of gold
William Jennings Bryan Congressman who fought for reform and ran for president with the support of the Populists and the Democrats
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