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MCAT Chemistry (VL)

B- decay Neutron into a proton+ e-
B+ decay Proton into neutron and positron
Half life equations N=N0(1/2)^T/T(1/2) or N = N0e^-kt k = ln2/t(1/2)
E=mc^2 w electrovolts (binding energy) Eb = delta(m)*931.5 eVolts m in amu
Electronegativity generally behaves as does ____. It is inversely proportional to ______ Ionization. radius.
Coordinate covalent bonds are typical of ____ lewis bases or ligands. WHne the bond breaks the ligand leaves with its electrons that it gave.
Octahedral with 3 lone pairs T shaped
Order of orbitals for hybridization s p p p d d d d d
Features of supercritical fluid High density with low viscosity
Unit for pascal Pa N/m^2
STP 0C (273.15K), 1 atm
Mega 10^6
Oxidation states 1. Standard state is 0 2. Add up 3. group 1 and group 2 4. Fluorine 5. H rule 6. Oxygen is -2 7. Oxygen family and fluorine family
Max number of e per energy level 2n^2
Exceptions to the quantumm numbers Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ag, Au,
Cal to Joules 1 cal = 4.2 J
Standard m oral volume 22.4 L
Boyle, Charles and Gay Lussac's PV, V/T, and P//T (hint: BP, CV)
KE for monoatomic noble gases KE = (3/2)nRT It's also their internal energy since all internal energy is stored as translational kinetic energy
van der waals equation Better predicts real gas behabior by accounting for the intermolecular forces and finite volume of gas. Decreases volume as the number of molecules increase. it also decreases pressure as the nnumber of molecules increase
Solubility rules: which are always soluble Group 1, ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3-), chlorate (ClO3 -), perchlorate (ClO4-), and acetate (CH2COOH)
Ionic compounds with ____ are always soluble Cl, I or Br
Which ones are insoluble unless with nitrate, chlorate, perchlorate or acetates Ag, Pb2+, Pb 4+, Hg2+ Hg2 2+ (silver, led, and mercury)
Which are generally insoluble Carbonates, phosphonates, sulfides and hydroxides (CO3, PO4, S, OH) are generally insoluble
What ca make S and OH souble? Ca, Sr, and Ba.
1 atm = ___ kPa 100
Phase solubily rules. What are they? reliability? Justa rule of thumb because 95% reliable solubility of sloids in liquid increases with increased temp solubility of gas in liquid decreases with increased temp, and increases with increased P
vapor pressure depression equations deltaPa = -XbPa(pure) deltaTb=Xb
Boiling point increase and freezing point decrease deltaTb=Kbim deltaTf=-Kfim m is molality
Kb and Kf for water (colligative propoerties) Kb is 0.5 C/m Kf is 1.9 C/m
Osmotic pressyre Osmotic pressure = MiRT M is molarity R will be regular gas constant 0.0821 Latm/Kmol
Gas constant 0.0821 Latm/Kmol
What is catalyst adsorption catalysts bind and draw reactants to the surface. More binding, better catalyst
Hetereogenous vs homogenous catalyst Different or same phase as the reactants and products
Unit for the rate needs to be M/s
Arrhenius factor and others in the arrhenius equation take into account freq of collision, orientation of colliding mmolecules, and activation energy. Doesn't depend on reactant/product concentration and is constant at constant temp
Graphs with 0 reaction order [A] vs t negative slope = -kf
Graphs with 1 reaction order Ln[A] vs t negative slope = -kf
Graph with 2 reaction order 1/[A] vs t positive slope = kf
Graph with 3 reaction order 1/(2A^2) vs t positive slope = kf
Equilibrium constant is Rate foward/rate rev. Unitless. Don't include pure liquids, and solids because they don't afferent equilibrium and aren't included in le chatelier
What has no effect on the le chatelier equilibrium constant Adding innert gas (because it increases total P but decreases Xa so in the end Pa doesn't change)
Ion product is equivalent to Qsp
Ideal solution is one where Solvent solute interactions are similar to solvent-solvent and solute-solute
Colloids Solution where solute particles are larger but it never settles down. Ex aerosol (liquid/solid particles in gas), foam (gas particles in liquid), emulsion
Tyndall effect The effect of colloid solution, which unlike true solution, they scatter light
Can you filter the colloidal particles out No, too small for filtration but can use heat or electrolytes that makes collolid coagulate and settle or use dialysis
The only factor that changes Keq and solubility constant is.... Temperature
A factort hat can alter both kinetics and thermodynamics is Temperature
Arrhenius acids and bases Acids produce H+, bases produce OH-
Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases Acids are H+ donors, bases are H+ acceptors
Lewis acids acids and bases Acids accept e-, and bases donate e-
Common strong acids HI, HBr, HCl, HClO4, H2SO4, HNO3
Common strong bases Group 1 and group 2 hydroxides, Group 1 oxides (LiO), and metal amides (NaNH2)
pH pH = -log[H+]
pKa pKa = -long[Ka] pKa + pKb = pH Ka*Kb = Kw
sqrt10 3.2
All neutralization reactions.... Go to completion regardless of weak or strong
Neutralization reaction formula a*[A]*Va = b*[B]*Vb
All neutralization reactions have the same Exothermic heat of neutralization
Stronger acids than water (for hydrolysis of salt... so conjugates of weak bases) NH4+, Be 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Al 3+, Cr 3+, and Fe 3+
Buffer solution equation pH = pKa + log [(conj. base/conj acid)] ideally you have same concentration of base and acid so pH = pKa but if the pKa of your acid isn't close to pH you want, then adjust concentrations accordingly
Indicator Weak acid that changes color when turned into conjugate base. Think le chatelier. Must be past 1 pH unit above or below pKa of indicator so you dont see mixed color (not always true though)
At half the equivalent point what happens to concentrations [HA] = [A-] So the buffer solution equation says pH = pKa
Heat and work deltaE = q + w
Internal energy is proportional to temperature!
Work by a gas -P(exerted)deltaV P is against it
A negative work is work for by or to the system? BY!!!
Expanding gases ____ COOL
What is isobaric Constant pressure
What is isochoric? work? Constant volume. No work since w=-Pdelta(V) (The piston is still locked). All the deltaE = +q
Isothermal? Work in isothermal? Heat is allowed to pass freely. Piston is no longer insulated. Graph is like P vs V of isobaric except the line decreases gradually because for gas to expand at constant T, the pressure must decrease Area = work done.
Adibatic? No heat is transfered between the system and all energy is transfered as work. Pressure decreases to rapidly that no heat has a chance to transfer (gas cools very fast). Sharp decrease in pressure, and deltaE = -w, since q=0
Calculations for enthalpy. Standardstate. T = 25 C or 298 K P = 1 atm
What occurs at the anode of a galvanic cell Oxidation The Red Cat ate An Ox"
Free energy change (deltaG 0) for a galvanic cell or redox reaction with cell voltage E deltaG = -nFE0 0 means stadard state, with 1 M solution, 1 atm, room temp.. F is faraday, the amount of charge of one mole of electron. n is the moles of electron transfered. If cell voltage is + then the redox reation will be spontaneous
Do you multiply standard reduction or ocidation potential by coefficient Nooooo! It's an intrinsic property.
Difference between electrolytic cell and galvanic cell? Electrolytic uses external voltage source (like battery) to create an electric current, thus forcing a nonspontaneous redox reaction
Electron flow in galvanic vs. electrolytic cells for BOTH, e flow goes from anode to cathode. Total E is negative for electrolytic.
Cathode and anode positive or negative galvanic and electrolytic cells Galvanic, cathode is + and anode is -. Electrolytic is opposite.
Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Amount of chemical change is proportional to the maount of electriciry rhat dlows through the cell
Faraday conversion 96,500 C per mol of e-
Nerst equation E = E0 - (RT/nF)lnQ
Concentration cells Galvanic cells where the electrodes are the same metals but the half cells have different ion concentrations (instead of the standard 1 M solutions). This creates a potential difference, causing the cell to work til the concentrations of both sides are =
Equivalent mass or Equivlanet weight Mass of an acid or base needed to give/react with 1 mol of H+. For diprotic acids, the equiv mass is 1/2 the molecular weight
Condosity The condosity of a solution is defined as the molar concentration of sodium chloride that has the same specific electrical conductance as the solution.
Created by: valen1014