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Simon Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Middle Ages

What are flying buttresses? Masses of brick work attached to the walls
What was the purpose of a flying buttress? They helped to hold the building up.
What were three functions of a cathedral? House of worship, gathering place, religious school
The cathedral was home to what church leader? the bishop
What did medieval Christians believe would happen if they lived according to church readings? They would go to Heaven after they died.
What did medieval Christians believe would happen to them if they did not obey church rules? They were punished after death.
In what two ways did the church get wealthy in the middle ages? The church collected taxes and took fiefs from lords in exchange for services performed by clergy.
Define clergy. People with authority to perform religious services.
What government job did the church have in the middle ages? Making laws and setting up courts.
Define excommunication. Being expelled from membership in the church and participation in church life.
Why was excommunication a serious threat? Few people would associate with a person who had been excommunicated.
Why did church officials have so much power in political matters? The church had the power to excommunicate someone.
What is the name of the carved stone figures that sit high atop Gothic cathedrals? gargoyles
Who was the leader of the Catholic Church? the pope
Who supervised several bishops? the archebishop
What church leader was located in local villages? priests
What four major event were the clergy involved in? Childbirth, illnesses, marriage, and death.
What roles did the clergy have? They helped people follow church rules about how to live.
What were the names of the religious communities where priests and monks lived? Monasteries
What were the names of the religions communities where nuns lived? convents
What was the name given to this type of religious life that priests, monks, and nuns lived? monasticism
How did the church help to improve the economy in the middle ages? They grew crops and tended live stock.
Who took care of the sick and set up schools? monks and nuns
What rare opportunity did convents provide to women? to be educated
How did the Greek texts and church beliefs conflict? use reason to discover truth
How did scholasticism try to satisfy the philosophies of both the Greeks and the church? support beliefs
What is the shape of the floor plan of a Gothic cathedral? a cross shape
What is the area in a cathedral where the audience sits called? the nave
Identify one advancement in architecture. vaulted ceilings
What was placed across the ceiling the spread out the weight? columns which made the ceilings stronger and more beautiful
What helped to support cathedral walls? Flying Buttresses
What was different about the windows in a cathedral compared to other buildings? A cathedral had many stained glass windows
What would people travel great distances to see? Holy objects
Give three reasons why gargoyles were placed on cathedrals. they kept evil spirits away, they warned people not to sin, they were a magical sign against evil
Why did trade increase as the middle ages progressed? There were more people in the towns and crusades brought in more goods to trade.
How was town life different than manor life? Manors lacked guilds,traders and craftsman.
What is a guild? A group of people who practiced a certain trade or craft.
What did guilds do? set prices, prevented outsiders from selling in town, paid dues, set standards, used money to support guild families in need.
What is an apprentice? An unpaid worker that was being trained in a craft.
What is a journeyman? A paid worker
Define "Holy Land" A region where Jesus had lived and taught
Define crusades the expedition to capture the holy land
Which 3 groups claimed Jerusalem as their holy city? Christians, Muslims, Jews
Define pilgrims People who journeyed to a sacred place
How did Arab Muslims treat Christian pilgrims? They treated them well.
How did Seljuk Turks treat Jewish and Christian visitors? They attacked them and treated the badly
What 3 reasons did Pope Urban have for starting the Crusades? He wanted the holy land to be under christian control, he wanted to unite Europeans, he wanted to make the church more popular.
Other than religious reasons why did Europeans fight in the crusades? to control trade routes
Why did people fight in the crusades? They wanted to capture the holy land and control the trade routes.
How did the crusades affect life on the manor? towns and cities grew, new technologies used, increase in food and medicine.
what is a surname? a last name
Why did people use sir names? to identify people as towns got bigger
Why does the lord enter the Great Hall last? because he is the most important
Why did the lord's son sit to his right he was is "right-hand" man
Who at the court table was served last? the lady-in-waiting because she was a lady
How did peasants serve food the Lord's table first and peasants last after nobles are done eating
How would you know that the Lord is the most powerful he was served first and he makes a lot of speaches
What is the object of chess capture the king
what does checkmate mean the king is dead
which pieces are the first line of defense? the pawns
what do pawns carry spears and shields
what does the rook do protect the king
which piece is second to the king or queen bishop
which piece rides on horseback knight
describe town streets noisy, crowded, bad smelling
how did people get drinking water from the town well or from a person selling water
describe houses built close together, small, top floors jutted out
what was black death a disease passed on by rats, fleas, and people
Black death was also called what? bubonic plague
What were symptoms of black death black spots, swelling in armpits, coughing up blood
What did some Christians think was the cause of the plague/black death a punishment from God
how did living conditions contribute to the spread of black death towns were dirty and filled with rats and fleas
describe one cure that medieval doctors tried to cure black death sitting in sewers
Created by: mechlingk
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