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1880-Dust Bowl 1940

apush 3

Tenements Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Jane Addams, Hull House Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the US, to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Denis Kearney Irish immigrant, settled in San Francisco, fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of growing # of imported Chinese workers who worked for less than Americans. Founded Workingman's Party, was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
Chinese Exclusion Law 1882 Denied citizenship to Chinese in the US and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immigrants who would work for less pay.
American Protective Association A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the US.
Literacy tests Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
Louis Sullivan (1856-1914) Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Frank Lloyd Wright Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Ashcan School Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they believed in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail.
Anthony Comstock (1844-1915) Social reformer who worked against obscenity.
Charles Darwin, Origin of Species Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
Social Darwinism Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds" Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
Rev. Josiah Strong Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
Social gospel A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Salvation Army, YMCA Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.
Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910) Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
Chautauqua Movement One of 1st adult education programs, started in 1874 as summer training for Sunday School teachers, developed into traveling lecture series & adult summer school which traversed country providing religious & secular education though lectures & classes.
Morrill Act 1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
"Gilded Age" 1877 to 1900, coined by Twain to describe tremendous increase in wealth caused by industrial age. Great industrial success of US & fabulous lifestyles of wealthy hid many social problems, including a high poverty rate, high crime rate & a corrupt govt.
William James Developed the philosophy of pragmatism, which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
Stephen Crane (1871-1900) Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. Crane had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish- American Wa
Mark Twain Master of satire, regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known as Whistler's Mother.
William Randolph Hearst Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Suffragette, org 1st convention on women's rights (Seneca Falls, NY, 1848) w/ Lucretia Mott. Issued Dec of Sentiments which declared men & women equal & demanded right to vote. Co-founded National Women's Suffrage Association w/ Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Alice Paul A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
Carry A. Nation (1846-1901) A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
Clara Barton Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War, founded the American Red Cross is 1881.
Civil Rights Act of 1875 Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public places, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Civil Rights cases (1883) State supreme court cases ruled that Const amens against discrimination applied only to fed & state govts, not to individuals or private institutions (govt could not order segregation, restaurants, hotels & railroads could). Made Jim Crow laws legal.
Lynching The practice of an angry mob hanging a perceived criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.
Booker T. Washington (1857-1915), Tuskegee Institute (1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881, founded first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
"The Atlanta Compromise" Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.
George Washington Carver (1860-1943) A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.
W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963) A black orator and essayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
"Talented Tenth" According to W. E. B. DuBois, the 10% of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson, "Separate but equal" (1866) Plessy was black, was instructed by NAACP to refuse to ride in train car reserved for blacks. NAACP hoped to force court decision on segregation. Sup Ct ruled against Plessy, saying segregated facilities were legal as long as they were of equal quality.
Jim Crow laws State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Disenfranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi 1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Grandfather clause Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
Niagara Movement A group of black and white reformers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.
Homestead Act 1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Granger Movement (1867) Worked to increase political & economic power of farmers. Opposed corrupt business practices & monopolies, supported relief for debtors. Not technically a political party but led to creation of many political parties, turned into Progressive Party.
Joseph Glidden He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
Indian Appropriations Act 1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians on to reservations.
Plains Indians Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Battle of the Little Big Horn 1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Chief Joseph Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the US Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Battle of Wounded Knee 1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor A muckracker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian poverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Safety Valve Thesis Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west for cheap land and a new start.
Comstock Lode Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859.
Bland-Allison Act (1878) Authorized coinage of limited # of silver dollars. First of several govt subsidies to silver producers in depression. Required govt buy $2-$4 mil in silver. Created partial dual coinage system (limping bimetallism). Repealed in 1900.
Bimetalism Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
Free Silver Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
Depression of 1893 Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Led to the Pullman strike.
Coxey's army 1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
Farmer's Alliance Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Populist Party platform, Omaha platform Officially named People's Party, founded in 1891 in Cincy, OH. Wrote platform for 1892 election (James Weaver=pres, James Field=VP), called for free coinage of silver & paper $; natl income tax; regulation of RRs; other reforms to help farmers. In S & W.
James B. Weaver He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Mary Ellen Lease A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
Williams Jenning Bryan Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State (1913-1915).
"Cross of Gold" Speech Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
Election of 1896: candidates and issues William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
Marcus Hanna Leader of the Republican Party who fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president.
Gold Standard Act (1900) Signed by McKinley, said all paper $ would be backed by gold. Meant govt had to hold gold in reserve in case people wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, allowed Silver Certificates issued by Bland-Allison Act to cont circulating.
In Re Debs 1894 - Eugene Debs organized the Pullman strike. A federal court found him guilty of restraint of trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government injunction to stop the strike. He later ran for president as a candidate of the Social Democratic Party.
"Yellow journalism" Term used to describe sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolph Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
De Lome Letter Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was played up by the yellow journalists.
Maine explodes February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship Maine. The US blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
Commodore Dewey Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay (Philippines) & attacked the Spanish Pacific fleet. US had been planning to take this strategic port in the Pacific. Dewey caught Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire fleet (May 1, 1898).
Cleveland and Hawaii President Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited five years to do so. McKinley finally did it. Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power.
Queen Liliuokalani Queen of Hawaii who gave the US naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893.
Annexation of Hawaii By the late 1800s, US had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a US territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Rough Riders 1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Treaty of Paris Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The US gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
American Anti-Imperialist League A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba The US acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
Insular cases Determined that inhabitants of US territories had some, but not all, of the rights of US citizens.
Teller Amendment April 1896 - US declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Platt Amendment A rider to Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, specified conditions under which US could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, said Cuba couldn’t make treaty w/ another nation that may impair its independence. Its provisions later put in Cuban Const.
Protectorate A weak country under the control and protection of a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates of the US.
Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection Emilio Aguinaldo led a Filipino insurrection against Spanish in 1896 & assisted US invasion. Served as leader of the provisional govt but was removed by the US b/c he wanted to make the Philippines independent before US felt it was ready for independence.
Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
Spheres of influence Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
Boxer Rebellion 1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
Election of 1900: candidates, issues Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrat, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850 - Treaty between US and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the US in 1881.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 1901 - Great Britain recognized US Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. US given full control over construction and management of the canal.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty 1903 - US guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Panama Revolution The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so US encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
Panama Canal Built to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
Goethals and Gorgas 1906 - Army colonels who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal.
Venezuelan Crisis 1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. US invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
Roosevelt Corollary US would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
"Colossus of the North" 1906 - Relations between US and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the US and Canada a "Colossus."
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth Japan attacked Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw troops from Manchuria after Boxer Rebellion (1904-05). War fought mainly in Korea, Japan won, US mediated treaty, increased US prestige, TR received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation.
San Francisco School Board Incident 1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
Gentlemen's Agreement In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict emigration of its nationals to US.
Great White Fleet 1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the US naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Root-Takahira Agreement 1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
"Muckrakers" Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the US Muckraker novel.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), History of the Standard Oil Company This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
John Dewey (1859-1952): the school and society, "progressive education", "learning by doing" American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr. A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
Margaret Sanger (1883-1966) Leader of movement to legalize birth control during early 1900's. As a nurse in poor sections of NYC she had seen suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded 1st birth control clinic in US & American Birth Control League (became Planned Parenthood).
Initiative, referendum, recall Initiative: people can propose new law. Referendum: law passed by legislature can be reference to people for approval/veto. Recall: people can vote to remove elected official from office. All made officials responsible/sensitive to people's needs.
Direct Primary An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments 1913: 16th authorized Congress to levy income tax. 1913: 17th gave power to elect senators to the people (senators previously appointed by legislatures of their states). 1919: 18th prohibited manufacture & sale of alcoholic. 1920: 19th-women can vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire Fire in NY's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146, mostly women. They died b/c the doors were locked and the windows were too high. Dramatized the poor working conditions and led to federal regulations to protect workers.
Square Deal Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902 Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891 First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
Elkins Act, 1903, rebates Strengthened earlier fed legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. To dodge previous legislation railroads were buying goods & transporting them as if they were their own.
Hepburn Act, 1906 It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910 Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
"Trustbuster" Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
Meat Inspection Act 1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor 1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process. Taylorism.
Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy" Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925) A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
City Manager Plan, Commission Plan Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
William Howard Taft 27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the US and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Roosevelt supported him in 1908, but later ran against him.
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy Cabinet members who fought over conservation. Pinchot, head of Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning fed conservation policy. Taft sided w/ Ballinger, fired Pinchot.
"Dollar Diplomacy" Taft and Knox came up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Taft-Roosevelt split Split over ideology. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Bull Moose Party The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs, issues Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.
IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Federal Reserve Act Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Income tax The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta 1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Jones Act, 1916 (Philippine) Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the US Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico) 1917 - Puerto Ricans won US citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.
Mexican Migration to the US In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
Pancho Villa, General Pershing 1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
Archangel Expedition 1917 - US sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The US troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.
Triple Entente; Allies Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
Triple Alliance; Central Powers Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the US into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Unrestricted submarine warfare This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with.
Zimmerman note 1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the US. It was intercepted and caused the US to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik After yrs of oppression the peasants rebelled against the czars. 1st govt was democratic & weak, another revolution overthrew that govt and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI.
War declared, April 1917 US declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.
"Make the world safe for democracy" Wilson gave this as a reason for US involvement in WWI.
Creel Committee Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the US as a champion of justice and liberty.
Bond drives Campaigns to get people to buy government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
War Industries Board The most powerful agency of the war, satisfied allied needs for goods and directed American industries in what to produce.
Bernard Baruch Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918 Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
Selective service 1917 Stated that all men between ages 20-45 had to be registered for possible military service in case draft became necessary.
Black migration to northern cities During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
Aims of Allies and US at Peach Conference Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.
Fourteen Points Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
League of Nations Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Reparations As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the US, it quickly led to a severe depression in Germany.
Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty Created the League of Nations.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
Red Scare, Palmer raids In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the US, and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
Brief depression, 1920-1921 Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
Normalcy Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WWI.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Harding scandals Charles Forbes-took mils from Vet’s Bureau. 1929, Naval oil reserve at Elk Hills (Teapot Dome) was taken, placed in hands of Department of Interior which leased land to oil companies. Harry Sinclair, Harry Daugherty, Denky, Fall involved, accepted bribes.
Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts Appointed Secr of the Treasury by Harding in 1921, served under Coolidge & Hoover. While in office the govt reduced WWI debt by $9 bil & Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called greatest Secr of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Progressive Party Popular name of "People's Party," formed in 1890s as coalition of Midwest farmers, socialists & labor organizations, such as AF of L. It attacked monopolies, wanted other reforms like bimetallism, transportation regulation, 8-hour work day & income tax.
Election of 1928 Herbert Hoover (Rep) was Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, worked his way through Stanford. He expounded nationalism & old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith (Dem) was Catholic immigrant from NY, advocated social reforms.
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925 Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Henry L. Mencken In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
"The Lost Generation" Writer Gertrude Stein named new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WWI. They thought that the US was materialistic and they criticized conformity.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit Gained internatl fame for his novels attacking weakness in US society. 1st American to win Nobel Prize, Main Street (1920)-a satire on lack of culture in US town. Babbit (1922)-small business person trying to break from confinements in life of US citizen.
Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WWI.
T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land" (1922) Influential poet of early 20th century, born in STL, moved to England after college & spent adult life in Europe. The poem contrasts spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe w/ values & unity of past. Considered foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
Sigmund Freud's Theories Austrian physician w/ new ideas on human mind. One of the founders of modern science of psychiatry, discovered subconscious. Believed mind is divided into 3 parts: id-primitive impulse; ego-reason which regulates between id & reality; superego-morals.
KDKA, Pittsburgh One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone Prohibition (1919): 18th Amen outlawed manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act (1919): Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors", set penalties for violating prohibition. Al Capone, famous leader of org crime of the era.
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's Invisible Empire of Knights of KKK, founded in GA in 1915 by Will Simmons to fight growing "influence" of blacks, Jews & Catholics in US. Saw growth in 1920s, especially in Midwest. Peak membership: 1924, 3 mil, rep for violence led to decline by 1929.
Fundamentalists Broad movement in Protestantism in the US which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System 1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Sacco and Vanzetti case Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian immigrants charged w/ murdering guard & robbing shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. Trial lasted from 1920-27, convicted on circumstantial evidence, possibly framed b/c of their anarchist & pro-union activities.
Leopold and Loeb case Nathan Leopold, Richard Loeb, convicted of killing young Bobby Franks in Chicago just to see if they could get away w/ it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, decided to commit perfect murder. 1st use of insanity defense.
Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan (1925) Tenn school teacher John Scopes tried for violation of Butler Act (forbade teaching evolution). WJB prosecuted case, criminal attorney Clarence Darrow defended Scopes. Scopes fined $100, trial started shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Henry Ford, the Model T 1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959) Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
The Jazz Singer 1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
New Woman, Flappers 1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967) Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis Lindbergh flew his airplane across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey 1920's sports heroes, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922 US & 9 other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt naval arms race had helped start WWI. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty 5: US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy: set 10 yr suspension of construction of large ships & set quotas for # of ships each country could build. 4 (not Italy): agreed to respect each other’s possessions in Pacific. 9: Reaffirmed Open Door Policy in China.
5-3-1 ration Ratio of construction of large ships, meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in US. Britain, US and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
Dawes Plan Post-WWI depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, US Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 "Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Causes of the depression Much debt, stock prices going up, over-production & under-consuming, stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures which spread to US. Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, didn’t have the $.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930 Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. Later used to finance wartime projects during WWII.
Bonus Army (1932) Facing Depression, WWI vets tried to pressure Congress to pay them retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 bil, wasn’t approved. Angry vets marched to DC, Hoover called in army to get vets out.
"Hooverville" Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine 1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the US would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
Good Neighbor Policy FDR described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." Phrase came to be used to describe US attitude to countries of Latin America. Under FDR's "Good Neighbor Policy," the US took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932 Liberal Repubs, Feorelo LaGuardia & George Norris cosponsored Norris-LaGuardia 
Federal Anti-Injunction Act: protected rights of striking workers by severely restricting fed courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes & other union activities.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
20th Amendment Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to Jan 20 for president and VP, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
21st Amendment Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
"Bank Holiday" March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
Hundred Days March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
"Relief, recovery, reform" 1st step in FDR's relief program: est Civilian Conservation Corps (1933). Chief measure designed to promote recovery was Natl Industrial Recovery Act. Reform: most reform acts designed to guarantee rights of labor & limit powers of businesses.
Brain trust Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933 (March 6) FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing b/c they had too little capital, 
made too many planning errors & had poor management. Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for govt inspection which restored public confidence in banks.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933 Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA) Main measure to promote recovery, set up Natl Recovery Admin & set prices, wages, work hours & production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of economy would allow industries to return to full production, then full employment & prosperity.
National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle" The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) 1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation payments to farmers who would remove land from production.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.
Civil Works Administration (CWA) Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.
Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes Under Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, etc.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) (May, 1935) Headed by Harold Hopkins, employed people for 30 hrs/week (to hire more). Federal Arts Project had artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians & dancers performing in poor areas; writers compiling guide books & local histories.
Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent foreclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
Federal Housing Authorities (FHA) 1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in securities trading.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.
Indian Reorganization Act 1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Recognition of the USSR November 1933 - In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated.
Wagner Act May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) Created to insure fairness in labor-management relations and to mediate employer disputes with unions.
Fair Labor Standards Act June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Formed by leaders in AFL who wanted to expand principles to include workers in mass production industries. 1935, created coalition of 8 unions comprising AFL & United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After split in org (1938) CIO est.
Sit-down strikes The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck 1939-Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
Created by: stuman52