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1832-new immigration

apush 2

Maysville Road Veto (1830) Proposed building road in KY (Clay's state) at fed expense. Jackson vetoed, didn't like Clay, Van Buren said NY & Penn paid for transportation upgrades w/ state $. Used strict interpretation of Const by saying fed govt couldn't pay for internal upgrades.
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party (main issue was Jackson's veto of recharter of Bank) Jackson (Dem) ran again w/ VP Van Buren vs Clay (Whig). Will Wirt = Anti-Masonic Party (1st election w/ nominating convention). Jackson=219, Clay=49, Wirt=1. Anti-Masons (took whig votes) came from perceived elitism of Masons (libertarian, upper class).
Clay (pro-Bank), Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle (Bank's president) US Bank chartered in 1791; held govt fund, was commercial. Wasn't rechartered in 1811, 2nd bank est in 1816 (failed in 36) (1/5 govt). Jackson opposed it, said it made other banks and business fail & favored rich. Biddle made bank's loan policy stricter.
Peggy Eaton Affair (social scandal 1829-1831) John Eaton (Secr of War) stayed w/ Timberlakes when in DC, rumors of affair w/ Peggy. Cabinet snubbed Mrs Eaton. Jackson sided w/ Eatons, affair helped dissolve cabinet, especially members associated w/ Calhoun (VP against Eatons) & had probs w/ Jackson.
Calhoun resigns as vice-president (1832) Calhoun, from SC, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states' rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in SC to present their case to Congress.
South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations) North wanted tariffs to protect new industries, agricultural South depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods, wanted tariffs for revenue. South opposed protective tariffs like Tariffs of 1828 & 1832, protested by refusing to collect tariff duties.
Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest Tariff of 1828 led Calhoun to write theory in SC Exposition & Protest (1828), said fed tariffs could be declared null & void by individual states. SC called convention in ‘32, Tariff of ’28 became Tariff of ‘32 & forbade collection of tariff duties in SC.
Jefferson Day Dinner: toasts and quotes (April 13, 1830) At Jefferson anniversary dinner Jackson toasted, made it clear to SC he would resist states' rights claim to nullify tariff law. Calhoun responded in support of states’ rights, wanted Jackson’s public support, failed.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833 Henry Clay devised Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced rates levied under Tariffs of 1828 & 1832. It caused SC to withdraw ordinance nullifying the Tariffs. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
Force Bill (1833) Authorized Jackson to use force to collect duties on Tariffs of 1828 & 1832. Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. SC also nullified the Force Act.
Specie Circular (July 11, 1836) Issued by Jackson, meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing $ w/o proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. Circular said purchase of public land be paid for in specie. Stopped speculation, public land sales went down, caused 1837 Panic.
Panic of 1837 Under Jackson state banks received govt $ from Bank of US. These banks issued paper $, financed speculation. Jackson issued Specie Circular, panic ensued (1837). Bank of US failed, cotton prices fell, businesses failed, widespread unemployment & distress.
Election of 1840 Henry Harrison (VP=Tyler, Whigs)-234 votes.Van Buren (Dem)-60. James G. Birney (Liberty)-0. Harrison given slogan "Tippecanoe & Tyler too". Van Buren depicted as luxurious, Harrison seen as "log cabin & hard cider" guy (1837 Panic hurt Van Buren).
Rise of the Second Party System Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
Transcendentalism Philosophy pioneered Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1830s & ‘40s, each person has direct communication w/ God & Nature, no need for organized churches. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, & freedom from social constraints & emphasized emotions.
Transcendentalists Included Emerson & Thoreau. Many formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm & Fruitlands where they lived & farmed together (philosophy was guide). Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience" Lived alone on Walden Pond w/ $8 yr from 1845-47, wrote about it in Walden. "On Civil Disobedience" inspired reformers b/c he refused to pay poll tax to protest slavery & Mex-US War. He was extreme individualist, told people to protest by ignoring laws.
Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The Dial Reformer, transcendentalist, led women's movement. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), publication of transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom", "progress in philosophy and theology... & hope that future won't always be as past."
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), The Spy, The Pioneers US novelist, stayed in Europe for 7 yrs, returned and was disgusted by US society b/c it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order. Wrote Last of the Mohicans (1826) too.
Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby Dick (1851) Melville rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny. Views were not popular at the time but were accepted by later generations.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti- transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England Puritans.
Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." Originator of the detective story and a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories.
Washington Irving (1783-1859) Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass (1855) L of G (considered immoral), 1st volume of poetry. Broke away from traditional content of New England poetry by describing life of working Americans. He loved people & expressed new democracy of a nation finding itself. Had radical and abolitionist views.
Hudson River School of Art In about 1825, a group of American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America From France, went to US in 1831, observed democracy in govt & society. His book discusses advantages of democracy & consequences of majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of industrial aristocracy & conflict between masses & individuals.
"The Burned-Over District" Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the Pentecostals (religious groups).
Charles G. Finney (1792-1875) 2nd Great Awakening, immensely successful revivalist of the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844) Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah 1847 - Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
Brook Farm An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
New Harmony A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
Oneida Community A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
Shakers A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Lyceum Movement Developed in 1800s in response to growing interest in college. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, & entertainment. Movement responsible for increase in # of colleges.
Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane Pioneer in movement to treat insane as mentally ill, beginning in 1820s, responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses & insane asylums in US & Canada. Succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for care of mentally ill.
Rise of labor leaders 1800s, labor unions became more common (b/c of growth of factories). Leaders sought to achieve unions' goals through political actions. Goals included reduction in length of workday, universal education, free land for settlers & abolition of monopolies.
National Trade Union Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) Case heard by Mass supreme court, first judgment in the US that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
Oberlin, 1833; Mt. Holyoke, 1836 Oberlin: founded by New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. 1st coed college & enroll blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Mass, became model for liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. (Both liberal).
Public education, Horace Mann Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Mass that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
American Temperance Union The flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800's. Opposed alcohol.
Maine Law, Neal Dow In 1838, Dow founded the Maine Temperance Union. As mayor of Portland, Maine, Dow secured in 1851 the state's passage the Maine Law, which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
Irish, German immigration Irish: arrived in 1800s, extremely poor peasants, became manpower for canal & railroad construction. German: came b/c of economic distress, large impact on US, shaping many morals. Both were heavy drinkers & supplied labor force for early industrial era.
Nativism An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Women, their rights, areas of discrimination In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
Lucretia Mott (1803-1880) Early feminist, worked constantly w/ her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition & women's suffrage. Her home was on underground railroad. W/ E Cady Stanton she helped organize 1st women's rights convention (Seneca Falls, NY in 1848).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine revolution from 1868 - 1870.
Seneca Falls (July, 1848) Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Emma Willard (1787-1870) Early supporter of women's education, 1818 she published Plan for Improving Female Education, became basis for public education of women in NY. In 1821, she opened her own girls’ school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) Writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
"Cult of True Womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness While many women were in favor of women's movement, some believed in preserving values of "true womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity & submissiveness. These opponents of women’s movement referred to their ideas as "Cult of True Womanhood."
Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
Manifest Destiny Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the US to the Pacific.
Horace Greeley (1811-1873) Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Stephen Austin (1793-1836) 1822 Austin founded 1st settlement of Americans in Texas ("Father of Texas"). 1833 sent to negotiate w/ Mexican govt for Texan independence, imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas he became commander of settlers’ army in Texas Rev.
Texas War for Independence Texas leaders met in 1835, org temporary govt. Troops took San Antonio, lost it after Alamo. Texas issued Dec of Ind. Santa Ana tried to put down rebellion, soldiers captured him in Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836), forced out Texas Independence.
Santa Ana As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
Alamo A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
San Jacinto Surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men surprised & overrun in 20 minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans, 1500 dead, 1000 captured. Texans, 4 dead.
Sam Houston (1793-1863) Former Gov of Tenn, adopted member of Cherokees, settled in Texas. Commander of Texas army in 1835, led them to victory at San Jacinto, outnumbered 2 to 1. Pres of Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845), advocated Texas joining Union in 1845.
Republic of Texas (March, 1836) Not recognized until month after battle of San Jacinto. 2nd pres attempted to est a sound govt & develop relations w/ England & France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts & renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join US in 1845.
Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler US made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Election of 1844 Candidates James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party. Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform. Liberty Party (The first abolitionist party).
Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon Texas annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon explored by Lew & Clark (1804-06) & US fur traders set up there, during War of 1812 Brits essentially took control of Oregon & held it jointly with US. Land returned to US w/ Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
54o40' or Fight! An aggressive slogan adopted in Oregon boundary dispute, dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan, Democrats wanted US border drawn at 54o40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49o latitude in 1846.
James K. Polk 11th president, known for promoting Manifest Destiny and Oregon dispute.
Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory Texas claimed its southern border was Rio Grande; Mexico wanted border drawn at Nueces River (100 miles north of Rio Grande). US & Mexico agreed not to send troops into disputed territory between 2 rivers but President Polk later reneged on agreement.

General Zachary Taylor Commander of Army of Occupation on Texas border. Took Army into land between Nueces & Rio Grande on Polk’s orders, built fort on north bank of Rio Grande. Mexi Army tried to capture fort, battle led to Mexi War. His victories in war made him natl hero.
Mexican War (causes) Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of US/Mexi relations in 1840s, provocation of US troops on Rio Grande. 1st half of war fought on Texas border led by Taylor. 2nd half fought in Mexi after US troops got Veracruz, led by Winfield Scott.
Mexican War (results) Results: US got Mexico City, Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the US.
Spot Resolutions Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago provisions This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the US. US gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
Mexican Cession Some of Mexico's territory was added to the US after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado (Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago).
Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Aroostook War Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
Oregon Fever 1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
Oregon Territory The territory comprised what are now the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the US and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
49th Parallel The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
Wilmot Proviso (attached to Polk’s Appropriations Bill of 1846) David Wilmot, banned slavery from land obtained from Mexi War, hated by South. Provoked one of the 1st debates on slavery at fed level, principles of the Proviso became core of Free Soil (later Republican) Party.
Gadsden Purchase (1853) US realized it had accidentally left portions of the routes to Cali as part of Mexico. James Gadsden, instructed by pres Pierce, made treaty to purchase the territory. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
"Transportation Revolution" By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831 and it made farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family and also made corporate farming possible.
Elias Howe (1819-1869) Invented the sewing machine in 1846 which made sewing faster and more efficient.
Clipper ships Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts & huge sails. Developed in second quarter of 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed, used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China.
Cyrus Field (1819-1892) An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph Morse developed a working telegraph in 1837 which improved communications.
American Colonization Society Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
Abolitionism The militant effort to do away w/ slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s, became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830s to the Civil War.
Sectionalism Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) Militant abolitionist, became editor of Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831, which gained natl fame due to his quotable & inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
The Liberator A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
American Anti-slavery Society Formed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
Theodore Weld (1802-1895) Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is" (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
The Grimke sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837) An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
Nat Turner's Insurrection (1831) Group of 60 slaves led by Turner killed 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This led to huge manhunt, 100 blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves & became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
Sojourner Truth Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800) Slave, planned revolt to make VA a state for blacks. Organized 1000 slaves who met outside Richmond on Aug 30, 1800. Planned to attack the city but roads were flooded. Attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. 25 hanged, including Gabriel.
Denmark Vessey A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his 35 followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
"King Cotton" Expression used by Southerners before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of cotton and that North needed South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
Free Soil Party Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Forty-Niners Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
California applies for admission as a state Californians were so eager to join union that they created and ratified a const & elected a govt before receiving approval from Congress. Cali was split down the middle by Missouri Compromise, there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact Called for admission of Cali as free state, slavery in Utah & NM up to popular sovereignty, adjustment of Texas/NM border, abolition of slave trade in DC, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage delayed the Civil War.
Fugitive Slave Law Enacted by Congress in 1793 & 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South. The 1850 law was tougher and aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Webster's 7th of March Speech Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned that the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
Henry Clay (1777-1852) Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
John C. Calhoun Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
Underground Railroad A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
Harriet Tubman (1821-1913) A former escaped slave, and one of the conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.
Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Election of 1852: end of the Whig party By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
Perry and Japan Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the US. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania-1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
Ostend Manifesto The recommendation that the US offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
Birth of the Republican Party A coalition of Free Soil Party, Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured 1/3 of the pop vote in the 1856 election.
Stephen A. Douglas A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Popular Sovereignty The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Thirty-six, thirty line According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36o30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party Dem-James Buchanan (barely won). Repub-John Fremont. Know-Nothing & Whig-Millard Fillmore. 1st election for Repubs. Know-Nothings opposed immigration & Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
"Bleeding Kansas" (Kansas Border War) Following KS-NB Act, pro-slavery forces from Mizzou went into KS, murdered antislavery settlers. Antislaves from KS reacted (most notorious attack was John Brown's 1856 attack at Pottawatomie Creek). Lasted 4 yrs, antislaves won, led to Civil War.
"Beecher's Bibles" During the Kansas border war, the New England Emigrant Aid Society sent rifles at the instigation of fervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These rifles became known as "Beecher's Bibles".
John Brown's Raid In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
Sumner-Brooks Affair (1856) Charles Sumner gave 2 day speech on Senate floor, denouncing South for crimes against KS & singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of SC for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the 1st Republican martyr.
Lecompton Constitution Made slavery legal in Kansas, it was rejected.
Dred Scott Decision Mizzou slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his 4 yr stay in north portion of Louisiana Territory made free land by Missouri Compromise had made him free. Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced "Tawny") As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign A series of 7 debates. The two argued important issues of the day like pop sovereignty, Lecompton Const & Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
Freeport Doctrine During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South Hinton Helper of NC spoke for poor, non-slave-owning Whites in his 1857 book, which was a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written w/ sympathy for blacks but w/ a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
Lincoln's "House Divided" speech (June, 1858) Acceptance speech to Senate: "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I don’t believe this govt can cont 1/2 slave & 1/2 free, I don’t expect Union to be dissolved, I don’t expect house to fall, but I do believe it will cease to be divided."
Election of 1860: candidates, parties Abe (Rep) Stephan A. Douglas (North Dem), John C. Breckenridge (South Dem), John Bell (Const Union).
Election of 1860: issues Issues: slavery in territories (Abe against any slavery). Dem Party split North & South (Douglas=N, Breck=S). John Bell=moderate, wanted union to stay together, urged middle states to join North after secession. Breck for slavery & states' rights.
Buchanan and the Secession Crisis After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
Crittenden Compromise proposal 1860-Measure to prevent Civil War by John Crittenden. Bill offered Const amen recognizing slavery in territories south of 36o30', noninterference w/ existing slavery, compensation to owners of fugitive slaves. Repubs defeated it (on Abe’s advice).
Border states States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
South's advantages in the Civil War Large land areas w/ long coasts, could afford to lose battles, could export cotton for $. They were fighting defensive war, only needed to keep North out to win. Also had nation's best military leaders & most of the existing military supplies.
North's advantages in the Civil War Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
Fort Sumter (April, 1861) Opened war, 1 of 2 forts in South under Union. Lincoln planned to send supplies, Confederacy demanded Union surrender, refused. Confederate Army began bombarding fort April 12, surrendered April 14. Congress declared war next day.
Bull Run At Bull Run Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to DC. South didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War, both sides were ill-prepared.
Monitor and the Merrimac (March 9, 1862) First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours ending in a draw. Monitor-Union, Merrimac-Confederacy.
Generals for the Confederacy Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
Union generals in the Civil War Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade.
Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox Gettysburg-90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted 3 days & North won. Vicksburg-besieged by Grant, surrendered after six months. Antietam-turning point of war, much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox-Lee surrendered to Grant.

Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
Northern blockade Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
Cotton versus Wheat Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold for large amounts of money. Wheat was mainly raised to feed farmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to grow.
Copperheads Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.
Suspension of habeas corpus Lincoln suspended this writ which stated a person can’t be arrested w/o probable cause, must be informed of charges against him and given opportunity to challenge them. Throughout war thousands were arrested for disloyal acts.
Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
Conscription draft riots The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
Emancipation Proclamation September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
Great Britain: Trent, Alabama, Laird rams, "Continuous Voyage" Union stopped Trent (British steamer) & abducted 2 Confederate ambassadors. Alabama was British-made vessel, fought for Confederacy, destroying over 60 Union ships in 22 months. Laird rams: ships designed to break blockades, ultimately not sold to South.
Election of 1864 Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)
Assassination of April 14, 1865 Lincoln shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
Ex Parte Milligan 1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshal law.
Radical Republicans After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Wade-Davis Bill 1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen) Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
Reconstruction Acts 1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Black codes Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
Thaddeus Stevens A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
Charles Sumner Same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, Sumner returned to Senate after Civil War began. He was formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Repub involved in impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) Southerner from Tenn, VP when Lincoln was killed, became president. He opposed radical Repubs who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. 1st US president to be impeached, he survived Senate removal by only one vote. Very weak president.

Freedmen's Bureau 1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Ku Klux Klan White-supremacist group formed by 6 former Confederate officers after Civil War. Name is Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. Original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but later resurrected in 1915.
Civil Rights Act 1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
Thirteenth Amendment 1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
Fourteenth Amendment 1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
Fifteenth Amendment Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
Tenure of Office Act (1866) Enacted by radical Congress, forbade president from removing civil officers w/o consent of Senate, meant to prevent Johnson from firing radicals from office. Johnson broke, fired radical Repub from his cabinet, he was impeached for this "crime".

Secretary of War Stanton As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
Scalawags A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
Carpetbaggers A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain govt contracts.
Purchase of Alaska (1867) Russia eager to give AK up, fur resources had been exhausted &, expecting friction w Britain, they preferred to see defenseless AK in US hands. Called "Seward's Folly" the purchase was made for $7.2 mil, gave US AK's resources of fish, timber, oil & gold.
Secretary of State William Seward 1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
Napoleon III and Maximilian in Mexico Elected emperor of France (1852-70), invaded Mexico when govt couldn't repay loans. Sent army, set up new govt under Maximilian. Refused Lincoln's request that France leave. After Civil War US sent army to force him out.
Monroe Doctrine (1823) Said Europe shouldn’t interfere w/ West Hemisphere & that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized. Only England, in particular George Canning, supported this. Mostly a show of nationalism, had no impact until later.
Ulysses S. Grant US president 1873-1877. Military hero of Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the US had had at that time.
Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden Rutherford B. Hayes-liberal Repub, Civil War general, got 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden-Dem, got 264,000 more pop votes than Hayes & 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. Electoral commission decided Hayes was winner, fraud was suspected.
Compromise of 1877 Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Solid South Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Sharecropping, Crop Lien System Sharecropping provided necessities for black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until farm was harvested. To protect creditor, storekeeper took mortgage on tenant's share of the crop. System abused, blacks taken advantage of, wasn't unlike slavery.
Segregation The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.
Hiram R. Revels North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.
Blanche K. Bruce Became a senator in 1874 - the only black to be elected to a full term until Edward Brooke in 1966.
"Waving the bloody shirt" The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.
Greenbacks Paper $ issued by govt during Civil War, weren’t redeemable for gold, $300 mil issued. Farmers hit by depression wanted inflation to cover losses, Grant vetoed inflation, became in permanent circulation. 1879, fed govt made them redeemable for gold.
Greenbacks - Labor Party (founded in 1878) Primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during Panic of 1873, fought for inflation (benefit debtors), shorter hours (benefits for labor) & more $ in circulation w/ paper & bimetallism. Had support of labor groups, wanted more greenbacks.
Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) 1st fed regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on merit basis. Brought about by Garfield’s assassination by immigrant angry about being unable to get govt job. Assassination raised ? about how people should get civil service jobs.
Chester A. Arthur Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland Cleveland (Dem) v Blaine (Repub) v Butler v St. John. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.
Stalwarts Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888) A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.
Half-breeds Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
Mugwumps Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland (Blaine associated with corruption). Mugwump was used in a NY Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" James G. Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election of 1884 to Harrison.
Treasury surplus During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deficit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.
Pensions, Garfield Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability for any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think Confederate veterans should receive pensions.
Secret ballot / Australian ballot 1st used in Australia in 1880s. All candidates’ names were to be printed on same white piece of paper at govt's expense & polling was to be done in private. Opposed by party machines who wanted pressure people into voting their way.
McKinley Tariff A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Morgan bond transaction JP Morgan took over Susquehanna & Albany RRs then, bought Carnegie's interests in steel (largest personal financial transaction in US history). Morgan combined companies, made US Steel Company, world's 1st bil $ corporation. Eased 1873 Panic.
Laissez-faire A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865, went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento, met Union Pacific at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869. 1st transcontinental railroad, overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
"Credit Mobilier" Construction company owned by stockholders of Union Pacific. After Union Pacific received govt contract to build transcontinental railroad it hired Credit Mobilier, charging 2x actual cost. Tried to bribe Congress when caught, biggest bribe scandal.
"Robber Barons" The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.
John D. Rockefeller Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
Standard Oil Company Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Horizontal consolidation A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
Vertical consolidation A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
Thomas A. Edison One of the most prolific inventors in US history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Alexander Graham Bell 1876 - Invented the telephone.
Leland Stanford (1824-1893) Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad (1863-1885), Cali to Utah, part of the first transcontinental railroad, met up w/ Union Pacific Railroad.
James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads. Great Northern finished in 1893, 1700 miles from Minnesota to Seattle, WA.
Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad which was all over the Northeast.
Bessemer process Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
Pierpont Morgan Banker's banker at first, then a financier who arranged the merger which created the US Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
Gustavus Swift In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
Phillip Armour (1832-1901) Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
James B. Duke Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
"Stock watering" Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
Jay Gould and Jim Fiske Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
Pools Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic.
Rebates Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Trusts Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Holding companies Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
Munn v. Illinois 1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois 1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Knights of Labor US labor union originally est as secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philly by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Terence Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
American Federation of Labor (AF of L) Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
Samuel Gompers President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Collective bargaining Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
Injunction A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
Strikes The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
Boycotts People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
Closed shop A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired (used to protect their workers from cheap labor).
Black list A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
Yellow Dog contracts A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
Haymarket Square Riot 100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. Police fired into crowd, workers met & rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. Bomb exploded, killing/injuring many police. Chicago workers & bomber were immigrants, promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Homestead Strike 1892-The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.
Pinkertons Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Pullman Strike 1894-Enraged workers part of George Pullman's "model town". Pullman fired three workers on committee. Pullman refused to negotiate, troops were brought in to ensure trains would cont. Orders for Pullman cars slacked, Pullman cut wages but not rents.
Boss Tweed Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Tammany Hall Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Thomas Nast Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
"New Imigration" 2nd wave of immigration, 1865-1910, 25 mil arrived. Earlier immigration came from West & North Europe, New Immigrants came from South & East Europe, fleeing persecution & poverty. Language barriers & cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Created by: stuman52