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end of FDR-end

apush 4

Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins The nation's first woman cabinet member.
Eleanor Roosevelt A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
Keynesian Economics The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
Deficit spending FDR's administration was based on this concept it involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, & ultimately employment by pouring billions of federal money into the economy even if govt didn't have funds & had to borrow money.
Coalition of the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still received strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald K. Smith Founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for confiscation of all fortunes over $5 mil and 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 mil. Killed in '35, his successor (Gerald K. Smith) lacked ability to head the society.
Father Charles Coughlin Headed the National Union for Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and finance and attracted an audience of millions from many faiths. Promoted inflationary currency, anti-Semitism.
Dr. Francis Townsend Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Second New Deal Some said 1st New Deal did too much & created big deficit, while others, mostly elderly, said it didn’t do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping Depression, led FDR to propose 2nd series of initiatives in 1935 (2nd New Deal).
Social Security Act One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Court-packing plan B/c Supreme Court wasn’t passing New Deal legislation, FDR proposed bill to allow president to name new fed judge for each who didn't retire by 70 (6 justices over 70 at time). 9 justices would have been 15, giving FDR majority of his appointees on court.
Hatch Act 1939 - Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S. (May 1935) Supreme Court declared Natl Industrial Recovery Act unconst, held that Congress improperly delegated legislative authority to Natl Industrial Recovery Adm & that fed govt had exceeded its jurisdiction b/c Schechter wasn’t engaged in interstate commerce.
Montevideo Conference The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between WWI and WWII concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines 1933 US proposed granting Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. Philippines rejected offer, asked for immediate commonwealth status w/ independence by 1946. US accepted their offer in Tydings-McDuffie Act.
Nye Committee Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
"Merchants of Death" Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting aggressor nations.
Neutrality legislation of 1935, 1936, 1937 35: When war started US exports would be embargoed for 6 months. 36: Pres got authority to say when state of war existed & prohibited loans to enemy. 37: Pres got authority to say if civil war was threat to world peace & prohibited arms sales to enemy.
Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco Spain est leftist democratic govt in 1930s. July, 1936, Francisco Franco & other army leaders staged coup, installed rightist fascist govt, starting civil war between loyalist Repub forces (Russian aid) & Franco's Fascist party (Mussolini & Hitler aid).
Ethiopia Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
Mussolini (1883-1945) Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.
Panay Incident 1937 - On the Yangtze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's apologies.
Quarantine Speech 1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist aggression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine aggressor nations.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism German fascist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain (Sept 29,1938) Hitler wanted to annex Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia), inhabitants mostly spoke German. Germany, Italy, France & Britain signed Munich Pact, gave Germany Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain thought Germany may end war after this.
Austria annexed March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
Nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR (August 23, 1939) Germany & Russia agreed not to attack each other, allowed Hitler to open 2nd front in West w/o defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland to Germany, allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia & East Poland. Hitler planned to break pact.
Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Axis Powers A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The countries were thereafter referred to as the Axis Powers.
"Cash and carry" revision of neutrality Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
Fall of France Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichy government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
America First Committee 1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies 1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
Smith Act Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Destroyer Deal 1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Election of 1940: candidates, issues Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Willkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.
"Lend lease" March 1941 Authorized president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any govt whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the US. Allowed US to send supplies & ammunition to Allies w/o technically becoming a co-belligerent.
Atlantic Charter, 8 principles (Drawn up by FDR and Churchill, August 1941) Repeal territory aggression, no territory changes w/o consent of those concerned, restore sovereign rights & self-govt, all nations can access raw materials, world economic cooperation, freedom from fear & want, freedom of seas, disarmament of aggressors.
Pearl Harbor (Dec 7, 1941) Surprise attack by Japanese on main US Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, destroyed 18 US ships and 200 aircraft. US losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response the US declared war on Japan and Germany, entering WWII.
Japanese relocation Bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that Japanese living in US were spies. FDR issued executive order 9066 which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the US into internment camps in interior of US.
Korematsu v. U.S., 1944 Upheld the US government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.
Bond drives Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds to raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
War Production Board Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
Office of Price Administration (OPA) Government agency which successful combated inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969) Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
General Douglas MacArthur Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Received Medal of Honor.
Genocide, "Final Solution" Genocide is destruction of a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.
Second front The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.
D-Day June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Stalingrad Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Winston Churchill Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
Casablanca Conference (Jan 14-23, 1943, Morocco) FDR & Churchill met to settle future strategy of Allies following success of North African campaign: agreed to launch attack on Italy through Sicily b4 invasion into France over English Channel & announced German unconditional surrender needed to end war.
Cairo Conference (Nov 1943) A meeting of Allied leaders FDR, Churchill & Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to define Allies goals w/ respect to war against Japan, announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WWI.
Tehran Conference (Dec 1943) Meeting between FDR, Churchill & Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, repeated pledge made in earlier Moscow Conference to create United Nations after war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
"Unconditional surrender” It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
Okinawa (April 1, 1945) US Army in Pacific had been pursuing "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. At Okinawa, only 300 miles south of Japanese home islands. By time fighting ended (June 2, 1945) US lost 50,000 men, Japanese lost 100,000.
Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) After recapturing France Allied advance became stalled along German border. In 1944 winter Germany staged massive counterattack in Belgium & Luxembourg which pushed 30 mile "bulge" into Allied lines. Allies stopped German advance & threw them back.
Manhattan Project A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967) Physics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer
Atomic bomb A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) FDR, Churchill, Stalin made final war plans, arranged German fate & discussed creation of UN. Decision made to divide Germany into 3 zones (4th zone later for France). Russia would enter war against Japan for Kuril Islands & 1/2 of Sakhalin Peninsula.
Potsdam Conference July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each of which would be ruled by different authority figures and managed by one of the Allied powers.
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.
Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.
Bretton Woods Conference Common name for United Nations Monetary & Financial Conference held in NH, 44 nations at war w/ Axis powers met to create world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas & speed economic recovery of Europe.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
San Francisco Conference and U.N. Charter 1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the United Nations Charter.
United Nations: Security Council, General Assembly, Secretary-General Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization's administrative work.
Atomic Energy Commission Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.
Superpowers The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.
Socialism, Communism Socialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.
Satellites Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Nuremberg trials 19 out of 22 German civil and military leaders were found guilty of "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life sentences and the rest to five to twenty year sentences.
Department of Defense created Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.
Containment, George F. Kennan A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Israel created (1948) 1947 UN General Assembly approved creating Jewish homeland by ending Brit mandate in Palestine & making 2 states: 1 Jewish & 1 Arab. May 14, ‘48, Jews proclaimed State of Israel, & all of surrounding Arab nations declared war. After war Jews got control.
Berlin blockade (April 1, 1948) Russia blockaded Berlin, hoped West would give city to Soviets. US & Britain mounted air lifts (airplane landed in West Berlin every few minutes). West Germany was republic under France, US & Britain. Berlin located in Soviet-controlled East Germany.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter.
Warsaw Pact To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) September, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modeled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.
Fall of China, Mao Tse-Tung (Mao Zedong) Mao Tse-Tung led Communists China, b/c of failure to form coalition govt between Chiang Kai-Shek & Communists, civil war broke out in China after WWII. Communists won in 1949 but new govt wasn’t recognized by much of the world, including US.
State Department White Paper 1949 - Set forth the State Department's efforts and future plans to stoop Communism. With regard to China, it declared the historic policy of the U.S. to be one of friendship and aid to the Chinese people, which would be maintained both in peace and war.
Chiang Kai-Shek, Formosa Chiang & nationalists forced to flee to Formosa (large island off China’s south coast) after Communist victory in civil war. Throughout 1950s, US continued to recognize & support Chiang's govt & ignore existence of Communist People's Republic on mainland.
Korean War, limited war Post WW2, Korea divided along 38th (north governed by USSR, south by US). 1950 North invaded South. UN raised international army (for 1st time) led by US to stop North. Called limited war b/c fighting only in Korea (no US fighting USSR).
Truman-MacArthur Controversy Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of US government's handling of war, intended to confirm American tradition of civilian control over the military. Truman's decision was widely criticized.
Postwar Inflation The high volume of U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inflation after the war.
G.I. Bill of Rights 1944 - Servicemen's Readjustment Act Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
Baby Boom 30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
Employment Act of 1946 Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947) The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
1381. Election of 1948: candidates, issues Dem: Truman, Rep: John Dewey, States' Rights Dem (Dixiecrat): Strom Thurmond, Progressive: Henry Wallace. Dem party torn by dispute: liberal civil rights platform & conservative states' rights views of south membership + Progressive took liberal votes.
Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.
Progressive Party, Henry Wallace Former vice-president under Roosevelt, Wallace ran for president with the Progressive Party, a branch of the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy of containment. He lost but became secretary of commerce under Truman.
Fair Deal Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
National Security Acts 1947 - Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Made standing committee in 1945. During WW II: investigated pro-fascist groups, after war it started investigating alleged communists. 1947-1949: conducted series of investigations into supposed communist infiltration of US govt & Hollywood film industry.
Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism Wisconsin Senator, campaigned in February, 1950: said US State Department was full of Communists. 1953: became Chair of Senate Sub-Committee on Investigations, accused Army of covering up foreign espionage. Army-McCarthy Hearings ended McCarthy.
Alger Hiss A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
McCarran Internal Security Act 1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Twenty-Second Amendment Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.
Ike (Eisenhower) and Modern Republicanism Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.
McCarran-Walter Immigration Act (1952) Immigration & Naturalization Act of 1952, kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, made allowances in quotas for people displaced by WWII & allowed more immigration of European refugees. Kept out people from Communist countries, could be denied entry.
Interstate Highways Act 1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.
Landrum-Griffin Act 1959 - Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
Jimmy Hoffa Leader of the teamster's union, he was anti-AFL/CIO. He threatened to defeat for reelection a Congressman who dared to vote for a tough labor law.
AFL-CIO merger In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their differences and unite. Had a total membership of over 15 million.
Alaska, Hawaii McKinley had purchased Alaska in 1867 for nine cents an acre and it was admitted to the Union in 1959. Alaska had great natural resources, including gold and oil reserves. Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959.
Sputnik October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act) 1958 - This created a multi-million dollar loan fund for college students and granted money to states for upgrading curriculum in the sciences and foreign languages.
"Military-Industrial Complex" Eisenhower 1st coined this phrase when he warned US against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that combined lobbying efforts of armed services & industries that contracted w/ the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Fair Employment Practices Committee Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces.
Detroit race riots June 25, 1943 - Outright racial war broke out between Blacks and Whites and the government did not send help.
Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948 In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
"Separate but Equal" In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.
Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
Dien Bien Phu France had colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat the Viet Minh seized Hanoi, declared North independent, started War w/ France (1946). 1954, Viet Minh destroyed French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu, Made French leave.
Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh Led N Vietnam, led resistance against Japan in WWII & led uprising against French Colonial govt. Traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, was Communist. Became President of North Vietnam govt est after French withdrawal. Called George Wash of N Vietnam.
John Foster Dulles As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
Massive Retaliation In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the U.S. would not start conflicts.
Brinksmanship The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the US and USSR during the Cold War.
Preemptive Strike The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, former army officer who led coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized Suez Canal in 1956 & was attacked by British, French & Israeli forces. US intervened on behalf of Egypt. Hurt Britain & France's rep as powers.
Peaceful coexistence Khrushchev's proposal that the US and USSR could compromise and learn to live with each other.
Eisenhower doctrine Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Castro's Revolution 1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Batista, and Cuba became Communist.
Bay of Pigs, 1961 (directed by Kennedy) 1400 US-trained Cubans left Nicaragua to end Castro's regime, landed at Bay of Pigs. Expected popular uprising would get victory, locals refused support. Promised US air cover failed, invaders killed/captured. Survivors ransomed back to US for $64 mil.
Alliance for Progress 1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct 14-28, 1962 After discovering Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba US announced quarantine (blockade) of Cuba. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
ICBM Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968) An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis 1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Civil Rights Act, 1957 Created by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Civil Rights division of the Justice Department.
Civil Rights Act, 1960 It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided for voting referees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks from voting.
Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes, White primaries Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy. Grandfather clause: Person could vote only if their g-pa had been registered to vote (many black g-pas were slaves). Poll taxes & White primaries were also methods to stop Black votes.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
tudent Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Organized in the fall of 1960 as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and register to vote.
Sit-ins, freedom rides Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.
"I have a dream" speech Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
March on Washington, 1963 August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.
Medgar Evers Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
Malcolm X One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
Stokely Carmichael In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
Black Panthers Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Black Muslims Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.
Black Power A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
Twenty-Fourth Amendment 1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Watts, Detroit race riots Watts: August, 1965, riot began due to arrest of a Black by a White, 34 died, 800 injured, 3500 arrested, $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit: July, 1967, army called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
De Facto, De Jure segregation De Facto means "it is that way because it just is," and De Jure means that there are rules and laws behind it. In 1965, President Johnson said that getting rid of De Jure segregation was not enough.
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section of the Act This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
Voting Rights Act, 1965 Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.
Civil Rights Act, 1968 Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.
Geography: North and South Vietnam North and South Vietnam were split at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam is bordered by the Gulf of Tonkin on the east and Laos on the west. South Vietnam is bordered by Laos and Cambodia on the west.
Viet Cong Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
Domino Theory 1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
Tet Offensive 1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
My Lai, Lt. Calley (March, 1968) An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
Bombing of Laos and Cambodia (March, 1969) US bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia & Laos. Technically illegal b/c Cambodia & Laos were neutral but done b/c North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
Vietnamization The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
Paris Accord, 1973 January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam, in violation of the treaty.
Election of 1960: issues, candidates, "Missile gap" Kennedy (Dem) won 303 electoral votes, Nixon (Rep) = 219, Byrd (Ind) = 15. Kennedy & Nixon split pop vote, Kennedy won by 118,000. Issues discussed in televised debates. "Missile gap": US military claim that USSR had more nuclear missiles than US.
"Impeach Earl Warren" Chief Justice of Supreme Court, used Court's authority to support civil rights & individual liberties. Authored Brown v. The Board, Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. Liberal attitudes led conservatives to brand him communist & call for impeachment.
Miranda Decision, Escobedo Decision (1964) Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent & have an attorney before being questioned by police. Escobedo said accused can reassert these rights at any time, even after agreeing to talk to police.
Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963 The Supreme Court held that all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a free attorney to represent defendants who are too poor to afford one.
Rachel Carson, Silent Spring US marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering food chain & eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. 1973, DDT was banned in US except for use in extreme health emergencies.
New Frontier The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
Kennedy and the Steel Price Rollback Angry at steel companies for lower wages & higher prices during his low-inflation plan, Kennedy activated fed govt's anti-trust laws & FBI. Steel companies cut prices back for few days, raised them again slowly. Kennedy settled w/ lower wages & prices.
Peace Corps Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
Berlin Wall 1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushchev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren Commission November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy from a Dallas book depository building, and was later himself killed by Jack Ruby. Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that they both acted alone.
"Flexible Response" Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
"Flower Children" Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
Election of 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived an extremist who advocated use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
Great Society Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
Office of Economic Opportunity 1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
War on Poverty (1965) Johnson figured since Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra $ so he'd use it to fight poverty. Started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, $ reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. Put on during 'Nam.
Elementary and Secondary Act 1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education.
Medicare Enacted in 1965 - provided, under Social Security, for federal subsidies to pay for the hospitalization of sick people age 65 and over.
Abolition of immigration quotas 1965 - Amendments to Immigration and Nationality Act abolished national origin quotas and instead, based immigration on skills and need for political asylum.
Department of Housing and Urban Development Created by Congress in 1965 it was 11th in cabinet office. Afro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements for low-income families.
John Birch Society Right-wing group named for a US missionary to China who was executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
New Left Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Senator Robert F. Kennedy Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
Election of 1968: candidates, issues Richard M. Nixon, Republican, won by a 1% margin against Hubert Humphrey, Democrat. The issues were the war in Vietnam and urban crisis of law and order.
Chicago, Democratic Party Convention riot August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands of anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Major Daley's police.
Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy" His political strategy of "courting" the South and bad-mouthing those Northerners who bad- mouthed the South. He chose Spiro Agnew, the Governor of Maryland, as his running mate to get the Southern vote.
Governor George Wallace of Alabama 1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's fear of big government and made a good showing.
Moon race, Neil Armstrong July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and fulfilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
Sunbelt versus Frostbelt A trend wherein people moved from the northern and eastern states to the south and southwest region from Virginia to California.
Betty Frieden, The Feminine Mystique 1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
National Organization for Women (NOW) Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
Nixon, "New Federalism" Meant returning power to the states, reversing flow of power & resources from states & communities to DC, and start power and resources flowing back to people all over US. Involved a 5-year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to states.
Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
Wage and price controls 1971 - To curb inflation, President Nixon froze prices, wages, and revenues for 90 days.
Nixon versus Congress (Jan 1973) Repubs broke into Dem facility at Watergate Hotel. Investigation disclosed existence of Nixon's tapes of meetings, Nixon refused to give tapes to Congress. Congress united against Nixon, allowed passage of legislation Nixon had opposed.
Watergate (June 17, 1972) 5 men arrested for breaking into Dem executive quarters in Watergate Hotel. 2 White House aides indicted, Senate hearing for Nixon began May, 1973, he admitted to complicity in burglary. July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, he resigned w/ a disbarment.
Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP) Established in 1971 to help Nixon get reelected. Involved in illegal activities such as the Watergate break-in.
Election of 1972: candidates, issues People feared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in defense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7% of the popular vote.
Senator George M. McGovern Democratic nominee for the 1972 election, from South Dakota. Somewhat of a radical, many voters thought he was a hippie and too supportive of women and militant Blacks. Ran an unsuccessful campaign, hampered by lack of funds.
Watergate tapes Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, John W. Dean and John Mitchell Men involved in the Watergate scandal, who took the fall for Nixon. Mitchell was Attorney General at the time.
Impeachment proceedings (led by Ervin) Hearings opened May 9, 1974. 3 articles of impeachment recommended against Nixon: taking part in criminal conspiracy to obstruct justice, repeatedly failing to carry out const oath, unconst defiance of committee subpoenas. He resigned Aug 9.
SALT I Agreement Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
Détente A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
China visit, 1972 February 21 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the UN.
Recognition of China Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic of China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
War Powers Act, 1973 Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
Henry S. Kissinger, "Shuttle Diplomacy" Policy of this Secretary of State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy of detente.
Twenty-Fifth Amendment Made the replacement of a vice president the same as for a Supreme Court justice, i.e., the president nominates someone and Congress decides.
Twenty-Sixth Amendment Lowered voting age to 18.
Chicanos Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the US.
Cesar Chavez Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
Warren E. Burger Appointed, 1969 A conservative appointed by Nixon, he filled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
Supreme Court: Roe v. Wade, 1973 Supreme Court ruled resrticting abortion unconst, said a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during first 3 months of pregnancy & could regulate (not prohibit) abortion during 2nd trimester (overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states).
American Indian Movement (AIM), Wounded Knee Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshals ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogalala Sioux.
Arab oil embargo October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed forced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
Gerald R. Ford Nixon's vice president after Agnew resigned, he became the only president never to be elected. Taking office after Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
"Stagflation" During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
SALT II 2nd Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. 2nd treaty signed June 18, 1977 to cut back weaponry of US & USSR b/c it was getting too competitive. Set limits on # of weapons produced. Later superseded by START treaty.
Election of 1976: candidate, issues Jimmy Carter, Democrat defeated Gerald Ford, Republican. The issues were energy, transportation, and conservation. Carter had no Washington ties. Ford appealed to the upper- middle class, but Carter won by 1.7 million votes.
Jimmy Carter Elected to the Senate in 1962 and 1964, in 1974 he became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the framework for Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base foreign policy on human rights.
Amnesty A general pardon by which the government absolves offenders, President Carter offered amnesty of Americans who had fled to other countries to avoid the draft for the Vietnam War.
Panama Canal Treaty 1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Camp David Accords Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty: Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat Product of the Camp David Accords, Sadat represented Egypt and Begin represented Israel. Israel returned land to Egypt in exchange for Egyptian recognition. Earned both men the Noble Peace Prize.
Department of Energy 1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance of energy conservation.
Department of Education 1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the changing role of the federal government in education.
Olympic Boycott, 1980 The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
Iranian Crisis, the Shah, the Ayatollah Khomeini (1978) Shah forced out of Iran, Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini est Islamic Republic based on Koran. Pres Carter allowed Shah to visit US for medical reasons. Iranian militants broke into US Embassy in Tehran, kept staff hostage for 444 days, released Jan 1981.
Election of 1980: candidates, issues Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional values.
Reaganomics Reagan's theory that if you cut taxes, it will spur the growth of public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks for the rich, "supply-side economics," and "trickle down" theory.
Supply side economics Reaganomics policy based on theory; allowing companies opportunity to make profits & encourage investment will stimulate economy & lead to higher standards of living. Argued that tax cuts can stimulate economic growth. $ needs to be in investors’ hands.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
Three Mile Island 1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
"Moral Majority" "Born-Again" Christians become politically active.
Iran-Iraq War Fought over religious differences, this war lasted many years, from 1980 to 1988.
Supreme Court: Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis, 1978 Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
Created by: stuman52