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Biochem 2 Test 1

Range for proper Fasting Blood Glucose 70-99 mg/dL
Range for proper blood glucose 2 hr after eating (postprandial) 70-145 mg/dL
Range for proper blood glucose at random (casual) 70-125 mg/dL
What is chronically high blood glucose called diabetes
What is the prediabetes range Fasting blood glucose of 11-120 mg/dL
What is the glucose level for diabetes Fasting blood glucose over 120 mg/dL
Symptoms of low BG <60 Hunger, glucagon release, epinephrine, cortisol, sweating, trembling <40 Lethargy, convulsions, coma <10 Permanent brain damage, death
Pathways to get from glucose to glycogen and back Glucose -> Glycogen; Gycogenesis (anabolism) Glycogen -> glucose; Glycogenolysis (catabolism)
Pathways to get from glucose to pyruvate and back Glucose -> Pyruvate; Glycolysis Pyruvate -> Glucose; Gluconeogenesis
Pathways to get from glucose to Pentose-5-phosphate and back Pentose Phosphate pathway
Where does glycolysis happen In cytoplasm
What is glycolysis -The conversion of glucose (C6) to 2 pyruvate (C3) -The partial oxidation of C (makes NADH) -Production of ATP (2 ATP)
Phases of glycolysis Preparatory Phase Payoff Phase
What happens in the preparatory phase of glycolysis Phosphorylation of glucose and it's conversion to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Glucose -(2ATP)-> fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -> 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
What happens in the Payoff phase of glycolysis Oxidative conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to pyruvate and the coupled formation of ATP and NADH 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate -(2NAD,4ADP)-> 2 pyruvate, 2NADH, 4ATP
How many total ATP does glycolysis produce 2 ATP/ glucose w/out electron transport available (in anaerobic conditions or where mitochondria no there)
What is Gluconeogenesis -Formation of new sugar -pyruvate -> glucose (other C3/4 compounds -> glucose) -Mainly happens in the liver
How do we get from Pyruvate to Phosphoenol Pyruvate Pyruvate Carboxylase enzyme - 2 Pyruvate (C3) -(2HCO3,2ATP)-> 2 Oxyloacetate (C4),2ADP,2Pi Pep Carboxy Kinase - 2 Oxyloacetate(C4) -(2GTP)-> Phosphoenol-pyruvate(C3), 2CO2, 2GDP
Enzyme to get from Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase Pi is lost
Enzyme to get from Glucose 6-phosphate to glucose Glucose 6-phosphatase Pi is lost
How many ATP are needed for gluconeogenesis 6 ATP
Many of the gluconeogenesis enzymes are dependent on what mineral Mg2+
Where does gluconeogenesis happen Mostly in the mitochondria
What are the beginning steps to gluconeogenesis during starvation/ with diabetes -In mitochondria; Pyruvate->Oxaloacetate->Malate-> -In cytosol; ->Malate-NAD->Oxaloacetate->PEP
What are the beginning steps to gluconeogenesis during exercising/with anaerobic muscles -In cytosol; Lactate-NAD->Pyruvate-> -In mitochondria; ->Pyruvate->oxaloacetate->PEP
Are membrane transporters used for oxyloacetate and NAD/NADH No because they stay in the mitochondria
Where is malate dehydrogenase get used for gluconeogenesis and what other cycle is there a connection with The conversion of Malate to Oxaloacetate The citric acid cycle
What are Isoenzymes Enzymes that catalyze same rxn in different cell compartments or tissues and encode by separate genes Ex: Mitochondrial/cytosolic; Malate Dehydrogenase, PEP carboxy kinase
Overall gluconeogenesis equation 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 GTP + 2 NADH + 4 H2O -> glucose + 4 ADP + 2 GDP + 6 Pi + 2 NAD
What type of pathway needs ATP and electron donors Anabolic
What type of pathway produces ATP and reduce electron carriers Catabolic
Where is lactate formed and can it be recycled -Formed in anaerobic skeletal muscle tissue and RBC (no mito.) -Can be recycled back to glucose in the liver
Describe the Metabolism of lactate -Glucose goes through glycolysis to make 2 pyruvate -If the 2 pyruvate has nowhere to go it is converted to 2 Lactate via fermentation -The fermentation process takes H+'s from NADH created in glycolysis, creating more NAD+ and keeping glycolysis going
Pyruvate structure vs lactate structure Pyruvate = COO-CO-CH3 Lactate = COO-CHOH-CH3
What is the Cori Cycle -recycling of lactate -happens in muscle and liver
Describe the Cori Cycle -Lactate travels from the muscle to the liver in the blood -In the liver ATP is used in gluconeogenesis to get glucose from lactate -Glucose goes back to muscle where it is potentially converted to lactate
What are the possible outcomes for glucose Glycogen Pyruvate Pentose-5-phosphate
Describe the structure of glycogen -Branched homopolysaccharide -Monomer=glucose -Connection: alpha1->4 branched with alpha1->6 -Found in liver and SKM
What is the reaction called going from glucose to glycogen Glycogenesis
What is the reaction called going from glycogen to glucose Glycogenolysis
Describe Metabloism of glycogen Glucose 6-P <=> Glucose 1-P -> UDP-Glucose ->Glycogen -> Glucose 1-P
Glucose from glycogen enters glycolytic pathway through the action of what three enzymes 1. Glycogen phosphorylase 2. glycogen debranching enzyme 3. phosphoglucomutase
In liver what converts glucose 6-P back to glucose when BG levels drop Glucose 6-phosphatase
What is the starting point and where does glycogen synthesis happen -In liver and SKM -Starting point = glucose 6-P
What enzyme is needed to go from glucose 6-P <=> glucose 1-P Phosphoglucomutase
What enzyme is needed for Glucose 1-P + UTP <=> UDP-glucose + inorganic pyrophosphate UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
What adds glucose to a nonreducing end of a branched glycogen molecule (alpha1->4 bonds) Glycogen synthase
What enzyme creates alpha1->6 branches for glycogen Glycogen branching enzyme
What enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of a (alpha1->4) polyglucose primer Glycogenin
What is the pathway from glucose to pentose-5-phosphate called oxidative pentose phosphatate pathway
What is the pathway from pentose-5-phosphate to glucose called non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway
What are some other names for the pentose phosphate pathway Phosphogluconate pathway Hexose monophosphate pathway
What is the key enzyme in non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway transketolase, transaldolase
What is the enzyme needed to go from glucose 6-P ->6-phosphogluconate Indirectly uses gluthathione reductase -Takes the proton from NADPH using a GSSG->2 Glutathione reaction -This Allows NADP+ to be available for the glucose 6-P reaction
Describe the reaction of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway Glucose 6-P + 2NADP + H2O -> Ribose 5-P + CO2 + 2NADPH -This happens in 4 enzymatic steps, in the cytoplasm and the first 3 steps are Mg dependent
What is the point of regulation of the oxidative phase of pentose phosphate pathway The first step -glucose 6-P dehydrogenase
What are the enzymes needed in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway in order 1. glucose 6-P dehydrogenase 2. Lactonase 3. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 4. Phosphopentose isomerase
What is the reaction of the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway 5 Ribose 5-P -> 5 Glucose 6-P
Describe what the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway is for and where it happens -In liver -recycling of pentose Phosphates -Is dependent on Thiamine (B1) -There is no net gain or loss of Carbon (start with 6 5C and end with 5 6C)
What tissues get >50% of E requirement from fat Liver, Heart, Resting SKM
What is used to degrade TAG's Intestinal Lipases
What is used to form mixed micelles in the small intestine out of FA's Bile Salts
How do FA's move through the blood after being absorbed In chylomicrons
What is used to convert TAG's to fatty acids and glycerol at the tissue Lipoprotein Lipase, activated by apoC-II in the capillary
What is mobilization of stored TAG's triggered by Glucagon (when GB is low) and Epinephrine (fight/flight)
What do glucagon and epinephrine lead to the activation of (in regardes to mobilization of stored TAG's) Hormone Sensitive lipase
What does Hormone Sensitive lipase break TAG's down into 3 FA's and 1 Glycerol
Describe how FFA are transported in blood 1) FFA released into blood 2)FFA binds to serum Albumin 3)Plasma membrane transporters of target tissues move FFA into cells
Describe FA transport into Mitochondria 1) Activation by Coenzyme A 2)Carnitine shuttle transports across inner mitochondria membrane
How much ATP is required to Activate a FA by coenzyme A 2 ATP
What are the three stages of FA oxidation 1) Beta Oxidation 2)Citric Acid Cycle 3)Respiratory Chain
Is there a limit to Beta Oxidation It won't work anaerobically
Describe beta oxidation Four enzymatic steps, 2 of them oxidative (yields 1NADH and 1FADH2). The end result is Acetyl-CoA
Step 1 of beta oxidation is dependent on what Riboflavin
What enzyme is involved in step 1 of beta oxidation Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
What does dehydrogenase mean A redox rxn is occurring
What enzyme is involved in step 2 of beta oxidation Enoyl-CoA hydratase
What is the required input for the second step of beta oxidation H2O
Step 3 of beta oxidation is dependent on what Niacin
What enzyme is involved in step 3 of beta oxidation beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Step 4 of beta oxidation is dependent on what Pantothenic Acid
What enzyme is involved in step 4 of beta oxidation Acyl-CoA acetyltransferase (tholase)
What is the required input of step 4 of beta oxidation CoA-SH (free Coenzyme A)
How do you know how many Acetyl CoA are produced pre FA #C/2 = #Acetyl CoA
What enzymes are used to process glycerol 1) Glycerol Kinase 2) Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 3)triose phosphate isomerase
Describe the total breakdown of glycerol Glycerol->glyceraldehyde 3-P->pyruvate->acetyl-CoA->citric acid cycle
How many ATP are gotten per Glycerol 16.5-18.5
Why is a high level of ketones bad Leads to high amounts of acetone which is toxic and a drop in pH which is detrimental
What are two common causes of ketones Starvation and uncontrolled diabetes
Where are ketones produced Only in liver (hepatocyte
Describe the anabolism of ketones -Formed from acetyl-CoA -Formed in matrix of mitochondria of hepatocytes -Exported to extrahepatic tissues for E production
Describe Catabolism of ketones -Acetone must be lost -Acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate are transported to exrahepatic tissue where they are coverted to acetyl-CoA and used fror energy production
How many acetyl CoA are used in the anabolism of a ketone 3 acetyl CoA
Enzymes used in the formation of ketones 2 Acetyl-CoA -thiolase-> Acetoacetyl-CoA -HMG-CoA synthase- beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA -HMG-CoA lyase-> acetoacetate
What are the two end products of Acetoacetate when making ketones Acetone using acetoacetate decarboxylase and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate using D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
Enzyme to go from TAG to FA and glycerol Hormone Sensitive lipase if in adipose; lipoprotein transport if going from liver through blood and into adipose
Enzyme to go from FA to TAG TAG synthesis, needs a Glycerol 3-P added in
How are FA's transported in the blood when coming out of adipose Albumin
Describe Biosynthesis of TAG's Synthesized from Fatty acyl-CoA and L-glycerol 3-P
Where is L-glycerol 3-P derived from glycolytic intermediate digydroxy-acetone P
What is a common precursor for the biosynthesis of TAG's Phosphatidic aid
Describe the synthesis of Phosphatidic Acid glucos/pyruvate -> DHAP -gycerol-3-P dehydrogenase-> glycerol-3-P -acyltransferase-> Monoacylglycerol-3-P -acyltransferase-> Phosphatidic acid
How does a phosphatidic acid get to be a TAG Phosphatidic acid -phosphatidic acid phosphatase-> 1,2 diacylglycerol -acyl transferase, Fatty acyl-CoA-> TAG
Where does the biosynthesis of FA's happen In the cytoplasm of the liver and adipose
What are the prominent enzymes in the biosynthesis of FA's FA synthase, Acetal CoA carboxylase
What C3 molecule is used as an intermediate of FA biosynthesis Malonyl-CoA
Describe the synthesis of malonyl-CoA HCO3+Acetyl-CoA -Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP-> Malonyl-CoA
Describe the reaction equation to get Palmitate from from malonyl-CoA 1 Acetyl-CoA + 7 Malonyl-CoA -14 NADPH-> Palmitate (16:0) + 7 CO2
Key points for the repeating reaction sequence of FA synthesis Saturated fatty acyl group is substrate for condensation with activated malonyl group, each cycle extends chain by 2 C, in each cycle there are 2 reductive steps (NADPH carrier)
How is Acetyl-CoA transported from the matrix of the mitochondria to the cytoplasm Acetyl-CoA combines with Oxaloacetate to form citrate. Citrate is transported to the cytosol by citrate transport. Citrate is than broken back down to oxaloacetate and Acetyl-CoA
What enzymes are needed to get Acetyl-CoA from the matrix of the mitochondria to the cytoplasm and how many ATP Citrate synthase and Citrate lyase. 8ATP per palmatate are needed
What enzymes are needed for the formation of Malonyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (biotin dependent) 7ATP/palmatate
Enzymes needed for FA synthesis Fatty Acid synthase, NADPH (niacin dependent)
Created by: bmlanger