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TermDefinition
Mayflower Compact 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. Signed by 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
William Bradford A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted Pilgrims = separatists, believed that the C of E couldn’t be reformed. Separatists illegal in New England, fled to US to settle in Plymouth. Puritans = non-separatists, wanted to reform/purify C of E, got right to settle in the Mass Bay area from King
Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Puritan migration Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
Church of England (Anglican Church): The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
John Winthrop (1588-1649) 1629 became first governor of Mass Bay colony, served until 1649. Puritan, opposed total democracy, believed colony was best governed by a few of skillful leaders, helped organize New England Confederation in 1643, served as first president.
Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform Founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
Contrast Puritan colonies with others Puritan colonies were self-governed, each town had its own govt which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members who were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office.
Anne Hutchinson She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637.
Roger Williams, Rhode Island 1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Half-Way Covenant The Half-Way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
Thomas Hooker Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639-Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
Massachusetts School Law First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
Harvard founded 1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
New England Confederation 1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies (New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts) and acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
King Phillip’s War 1665 Series of battles in NH, colonists v. Wompanowogs, led by chief called King Philip. Started when Mass govt tried to assert court jurisdiction over Indians, colonists won w/ help of Mohawks, this victory opened up more Indian land for expansion.
Dominion of New England 1686 - British govt combined colonies of Mass, RI, NH, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Joint stock company A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
Virginia (Jamestown = 1607): purpose, problems, failures, successes Formed by Virginia Company for profit. Starvation was major problem, 90% of colonists died 1st year, many survivors left, offered private land to attract settlers, eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Not successful until tobacco.
Headright system Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
John Smith Helped found & govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped Virginia colony get through difficult 1st winter.
John Rolfe, tobacco He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Slavery begins 1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
House of Burgesses 1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America.
Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Nathaniel Bacon and other Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after they attacked western settlements. Bacon led army, defeated Indians then marched on Jamestown and burned the city.
Georgia: reasons, successes 1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
James Oglethorpe Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.
Carolinas 1665 Charles II granted this land to pay off debt to supporters. They instituted headright and a representative govt to attract colonists. SC grew rich from sugar islands, poorer NC was mostly farmers. Conflicts between the regions eventually led to the split.
Staple crops in the South Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
Pennsylvania, William Penn 1681 Penn received land grant from King Charles II, used it to form a colony for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom. William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
New York: Dutch, 1664 English NY belonged to Dutch but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When British came to take NY, the Dutch, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
Five Nations The federation of tribes in north NY: Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Onondaga, and Cayuga. a.k.a "Iroquois," or the League of Five Nations (Tuscarora added as 6th member in 1720). Most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s.
Crops in the Middle Colonies The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
New York and Philadelphia as urban centers NY important urban center b/c harbors and rivers, important for trade. Philly (capital of Penn. from 1683-1799) was center for trade and crafts, got large # of immigrants, by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. Both played role in US Independence.
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island Penn: Founded by William Penn to give protection for Quakers. ML: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. RI: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
Great Awakening (1739-1744) Puritanism had declined by 1730s, people upset about decline in religion. Great Awakening was an outbreak of religious fervor that swept through colonies, one of the 1st events to unify colonies. George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Methodists & Baptists.
Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
George Whitefield Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Old Lights, New Lights The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
Lord Baltimore Founded ML and offered religious freedom to Christians because he knew members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be minority in the colony. Maryland Act of Toleration 1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Deism The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Mercantilism Economic policy of Europe in 1500s through 1700s. Govt controlled industry and trade w/ idea that natl strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Colonies served as sources of materials and markets for manufactured goods.
Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696 British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
Triangular Trade Backbone of New England’s economy during colonial period. First, New England ships to Africa, rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean. There slaves were traded for sugar and molasses which were sent to New England to make rum.
Molasses Act, 1733 British legislation, taxed molasses, rum, & sugar, when colonies imported it from non-British countries. Act angered US colonies which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. British had difficulty enforcing this.
Currency Act, 1764 This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
Salem witch trials Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Indentured servants People who couldn’t afford passage to colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Poor Richard’s Almanack 1st published 1732, written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice. It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784) An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692) A Puritan and the 1st colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of poetry were family, home, and religion.
Magna Carta, 1215 An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.
"Salutary neglect" Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing w/ American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
The Enlightenment Philosophical movement, started in Europe in 1700s, spread to colonies. Emphasized reason & scientific method. Writers of enlightenment focused on govt, ethics, & science, not imagination, emotions, or religion. Deism = religion of Enlightenment.
Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation: Virtual representation: a rep isn’t elected by his constituents, he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation: a rep is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies Proprietary colonies: founded by a proprietary company or individual, controlled by proprietor. Charter colonies: founded by govt charter granted to company or group of people. Royal (crown) colonies formed by king so the govt had total control over them.
Town meetings A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
John Peter Zenger trial Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
John Locke (1632-1704) Ideas inspired US revolution, wrote human beings have right to life, liberty, & property, & govt exist to protect those rights. Believed govt based on unwritten "social contract" w/ rulers and ruled. People could get new govt if these rights were lost.
A democratic society or not? Founding Fathers not sure democracy was right form of govt for US, feared anarchy & true will of people wouldn’t be represented. Govt they designed like a republic: indirect democracy where people don’t vote on laws but elect reps to vote for them.
Land claims and squabbles in North America The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Both the British and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
Differences between French and British colonization British settled along coast, started farms, towns, govts. Families emigrated, little interaction w/ Indians. French colonized interior, controlled fur trade. Immigrants were single men, few towns, loose govt authority, traded w/ Indians.
French and Indian War (1756-1763) Iroquois Nation (except Mohawks) w/ Britain, colonies fought under British commanders. Britain won, gained control of remaining French possessions in Canada & India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceded FL to Britain but received Louisiana.
Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
General Braddock British commander in French and Indian War, killed when his army defeated in Battle of Fallen Timbers at intersection of Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers. After his death Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
William Pitt (1708-1778) British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne Became important French outposts in north Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 French troops in Fort Duquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec 1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
Treaty of Paris, 1763 Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, ended Seven Years War. France lost Canada, land east of Miss, some Caribbean islands & India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and land west of Miss to Spain, to compensate for ceding FL to British.
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Paxton Boys 1763-A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Navigation Acts British regulations, taxed goods imported by colonies from places other than Britain, sought to control & regulate colonial trade. Reinstated after French Indian War, Britain needed to pay debts from war & to pay costs of maintaining army in colonies.
Grenville’s Program As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 & the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in colonies and believed in reducing financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Sugar Act, 1764 Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, replaced Molasses Act of 1733, lowered tax on sugar & molasses and adopted provisions to insure tax was strictly enforced, made it illegal for colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Non-importation A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
Stamp Act March 22, 1765 Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures, required legal papers used in colonies, had to be on stamped British paper, led to riots. Decline in British imports (from non-importation movement), London merchants got Parliament to repeal in 1776.
Stamp Act Congress, 1765 27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) Urged colonies to fight for independence. In Virginia in 1775, gave most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virg, helped Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Sons of Liberty Political org for colonial independence, formed in 1765 after the Stamp. After repeal of the Stamp Act, many local chapters formed Committees of Correspondence, continued to oppose British policies towards colonies. Leaders, Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Internal taxes Taxes which arose from “internal” (in colonies) activities. Stamp Act considered internal tax b/c it taxed colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many felt Parliament didn’t have authority to levy internal taxes on colonies.
External taxes Taxes from outside activities like customs duties. Sugar Act was external tax, only operated on goods imported to colonies from overseas. Colonists who objected Parliament's "internal" taxes felt Parliament had authority over external taxes on imports.
Declaratory Act, 1766 Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
Quartering Act March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Townshend Acts, reaction Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend in 1767, taxed quasi-luxury items imported into colonies including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instituted another movement to stop importing British goods.
Sam Adams (1722-1803) Mass politician, radical fighter for colonial independence, helped org Sons of Liberty & Non-Importation Commission, (fought Townshend Acts, possibly caused Boston Tea Party). Served in Continental Congress during Revolution, was Gov of Mass from 1794-96.
The Association Military organization formed by Franklin which formed fighting units in Penn. and erected two batteries on Delaware River.
Repeal of the Townshend Acts 1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
Boston Massacre, 1770 Colonists hated British soldiers b/c they took jobs. March 4, 1770, group of colonists threw rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers who panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonists, outraged colonies, increased anti-British sentiment.
Crispus Attucks (1723-1770) One of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and the first to die. He became a martyr.
John Adams Strong believer in colonial independence, argued against Stamp Act, involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Mass, he urged the 2nd Continental Congress to declare independence, helped draft & pass Declaration of Independence.
Carolina Regulators West frontiersmen, rebelled in protest against high taxes imposed by Eastern colonial govt of NC in 1768, orgtion was crushed by military force by Gov Tryon in 1771. In SC, groups of vigilantes orged to fight outlaw bands along West frontier in 1767-1769.
Gaspée Incident June 1772 British customs ship Gaspée ran around off colonial coast. When British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.
Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts 1771 to 1774, before becoming Gov Hutchinson supported Parliament's right to tax colonies. 1773, refused to comply w/ demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading cargo caused Boston Tea Party, had to flee to England in 1774.
Committees of Correspondence Started as groups of citizens in Mass, RI, & NY in 1763, began circulating info about opposing British trade measures. The first govt-organized committee appeared in Mass in 1764. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
Tea Act, East India Company The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
Boston Tea Party, December 1773 British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor, refused to leave until colonists took tea. Boston was boycotting tea in protest of Tea Act and wouldn’t let ships bring tea ashore. Colonists disguised as Indians boarded ships and threw tea overboard.
Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts 1774 Response to Boston Tea Party. Boston Port Act shut down Boston Harbor. Mass Govt Act disbanded Boston Assembly. Quartering Act made colonists provide for British soldiers. Adm of Justice Act removed power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
Boston Port Act One of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, 1774 Quebec Act recognized Roman-Catholic Church in Quebec. 1st Continental Congress rejected unified govt, stated Declaration of Rights (angers w/ crown), created Continental Association. 1775, Parliament declared colonies to be in rebellion.
Continental Association Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilance in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774 General Gage ordered by King George 3 to arrest Sam Adams & Hancock. Colonial militias warned by Revere tried to stop Brits at Lexington. Brits moved to Concord, Adams & Hancock hiding there. Colonists kept shooting after Brits retreated, started Rev War.
Paul Revere, William Dawes Rode through countryside warning local militias of approaching British troops before Battles of Lexington and Concord (Revere caught by Brits shortly after setting out, never completed his planned ride). Militias were able to take the British by surprise.
Second Continental Congress It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
George Washington He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) Start of Rev War, Brits based in Boston. British army began to fortify Dorchester Heights near Boston, Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston. British general Gage took hill on 3rd assault. British lost many and hope for quick victory.
Olive Branch Petition July 8, 1775 Colonies final peace offer to Britain, agreeing loyalty to British govt if grievances were addressed (repeal Coercive Acts, end taxation w/o rep). Rejected by Parliament which passed US Prohibitory Act (Dec 1775), forbade further trade with the colonies.
Thomas Paine: Common Sense January 1, 1776 A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
Natural Rights Philosophy Proposed by John Locke; said that humans had by nature certain rights, such as rights to life, liberty, and property.
George III Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of June 7, 1776 Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence.
Thomas Jefferson He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared colonies to be an independent nation.
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
Lafayette Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
Benedict Arnold General in Continental Army, won key victories 4 colonies in NY, 1777, instrumental in Gates victory over Brits at Saratoga. 1780, plotted to surrender Hudson R fortress to Brits in exchange 4 commission in royal army, most famous traitor in US history.
John Paul Jones (1747-1792) Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
French Alliance of 1778 Colonies needed help from Europe in war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival & hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose American colonies. French were persuaded to support colonists by news of American victory at Battle of Saratoga.
Saratoga October 17, 1777 British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along Hudson Valley in NY, hoping to link up w/ General Howe in NYC, thereby cutting colonies in half. Burgoyne defeated by US General Horatio Gates, surrendering entire British Army of North.
Valley Forge Site where Continental Army camped during 1777-78 winter (lost lives w/ cold and hunger) after defeats at Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. This site allowed Washington to defend Continental Congress (meeting in Penn after Brits took Philly).
Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis, October 19, 1781 1780 Brits moved to South b/c failure in North. Failed in South, marched back to NYC. Brit Cornwallis trapped in Yorktown on Chesap Bay. French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked escape, Cornwallis surrendered to Continental Army, end of major fighting.
Treaty of Paris, 1783 This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Social impact of the war The Revolutionary War saw emergence of first anti-slavery groups, & many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots
Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom 1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.
New state constitutions 1st set of constitutions drafted by individual states, most of govt power in legislature. W/o leadership of executive, state legislatures argued among themselves. After Const states abandoned old Const and new one balanced legislative and executive power.
Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes States power: tax, regulate trade, draft troops. Fed govt power: war, foreign policy, issuing money. Articles’ weakness: fed govt had so little power, couldn’t unite country. Only major success: Northwest Ordinance. Articles abandoned for Const.
Constitution The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
Constitution: Preamble We the people of US, in order to form a more perfect union, est justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for common defense, promote general welfare, and secure blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain & est this Const for USA.
Constitution: Legislature One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Constitution: House of Representatives One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state’s population.
Constitution: Senate The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
Constitution: Supremacy clause Article VI of the Const, which declares the Constitution, all federal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all federal treaties, to be the "supreme law of the land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.
Constitution: Checks and balances Each of the 3 branches of govt "checks" power of other 2, no one branch can become too powerful. President (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and chooses judges in Supreme Court (judiciary).
Constitution: Separation of power Powers of the government are divided between 3 branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.
Maryland, cession of western land claims Post Rev War, states claimed west land between north & south borders, much land claimed by multiple state. Continental Congress trying to pass Articles of Confederation, ML refused until states gave west land claims. ML held out, land claims abandoned.
Northwest posts British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land.
Northwest Ordinance, 1787 A major success of Articles of Confederation. Set up framework of a govt for Northwest territory. Ordinance provided that Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in Territory, and set 60,000 as the min pop for statehood.
Shay’s Rebellion, 1786-1787 Poor, indebted landowners in Mass blocked access to courts & prevented govt from arresting or repossessing property of those in debt. Fed govt was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, sign that Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
1780's Depression Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in unemployment, and also caused by tough interstate commerce rules which decreased trade.
Noah Webster (1758-1843) Wrote some of the first dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard for the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather than British.
Philadelphia Convention for the Constitution (Constitutional Convention) May 25, 1787-Sept17, 1787 Convention recommended by Annapolis Convention was held in Philly. All states except RI sent delegates, George Washington served as president of convention which produced the present Const of US, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
James Madison, "Father of the Constitution" His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Great Compromise At Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted Virginia Plan, based each state’s # of reps in Congress on pop. Smaller states wanted New Jersey Plan, gave every state same # of reps. Compromise: House and the Senate created, both plans used.
Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan Virg: called for 2-house Congress, # of reps based on pop. NJ: one-house Congress, all states had same # of reps. Connecticut (Compromise Plan): 2-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied.
North-South Compromises North given full fed protection of trade & commerce. South given permanent relief from export taxes & guarantee that importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 yrs & natl capitol in South. Slaves = 3/5 person when determining pop.
Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause The South’s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.
Procedures for amendments An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions.
Beard thesis, his critics 1913 Const written not to ensure democratic govt for the people but to protect economic interests of its writers & benefit wealthy financial speculators who purchased Rev War govt bonds through creation of strong natl govt that could insure bonds be repaid.
Antifederalists Opposed ratification of Const b/c it gave more power to fed govt & less to states & didn’t ensure individual rights, many wanted Articles of Confederation. Antifeds helped pass Bill of Rights and regrouped as Dem-Repubs after the Const was ratified.
Supporters of the Constitution Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
Opponents of the Constitution Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) "Give me liberty or give me death." One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia.
Sam Adams He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
The ratification fights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia Mass farmers opposed Const b/c it protected trade more than agriculture (Mass still 6th to ratify). NY opposed to Const, Federalist Papers published there to gain support for it. Virg & NY wouldn’t ratify until Bill of Rights was added to the Const.
The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
"The Federalist, # 10" This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good).
Bill of Rights adopted, 1791 The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
President George Washington He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
Vice-president John Adams A Federalist, he had little say in Washington’s administration.
Judiciary Act, 1789 Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
Sec. of State Jefferson Democratic-Republican who opposed Hamilton’s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
Hamilton’s Program Designed to pay U.S. war debts & stabilize economy; believed US should become leading internatl commercial power. Included creation of Natl Bank, estment of U.S. credit rate, higher tariffs, excise tax on whiskey, & said fed govt assume states’ war debts.
National debt, state debt, foreign debt U.S. natl debt: domestic debt to soldiers & others who hadn’t been paid for Rev War, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. Fed govt also assumed all debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton’s program paid debts.
Excise taxes Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.
Report on Manufactures 1791-A document submitted to Congress by Hamilton which set up an economic policy to encourage industry.
Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause Section 8 Article I: list of Congress' powers + power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers" (called implied powers & elastic clause). Debate as to how much power this clause grant Congress.
Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
Location of the capitol: Washington D.C. South angry country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in North & that slaves were not being counted as full persons. As part of Compromise Plan adopted at Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that nation’s capitol would be located in South.
Whiskey Rebellion, October 1794 Farmers in Penn rebelled against Hamilton' tax on whiskey, several fed officers killed. Army led by Washington ended rebellion. Incident showed govt under Const could control such a problem (unlike govt under Articles of Confed w/ Shay’s Rebellion).
Citizen Edmund Charles Genêt French diplomat Genêt came to US in 1793 to ask US govt to send money & troops to aid revolutionaries in French Rev. Washington asked France to recall Genêt after he began recruiting men & arming ships in US ports. Genêt later granted US citizenship.
French Alliance of 1778 France aided US in American Revolution, and US agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the US didn’t do anything to help. US didn’t fulfill their part of agreement until WW1.
French Revolution 1790's 2nd great democratic revolution after American Rev was proven a success. US did nothing to aid either side. French people overthrew king & his govt then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic govts until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
Neutrality Proclamation Washington’s declaration that US wouldn’t take sides after French Rev touched off war between France & coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
Jay’s Treaty 1794 Signed in hopes of settling growing conflicts between US & Britain, dealt w/ NW posts & trade on Miss R. Unpopular w/ US b/c didn’t punish Britain for attacks on neutral US ships and w/ France b/c US accepted British restrictions on rights of neutrals.
Pickney’s Treaty 1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
"Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers, August 20, 1794 Wayne played crucial role in defeat of Cornwallis. 1790's, British held posts in Ohio Valley, encouraged Indians to attack Americans. Led by Wayne, Americans beat Miami Indians in Battle of Fallen Timbers. This paved way for US settlement of Ohio Valley.
Washington’s Farewell Address He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-president Jefferson The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican.
Federalists Leading Feds were Alex Hamilton + John Adams. Fed programs: Natl Bank, taxes to support growth of industry. Feds believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Federalists supported Britain.
Democratic-Republicans Dem-Reps were previously Antifeds. Leading Dem-Reps were Thom Jeff + James Madison. Favored state banks & little industry, believed in weak central govt, state & individual rights & strict interpretation of Const. Felt France was US’s most important ally.
XYZ Affair, Talleyrand, 1798 Commission sent to France to discuss disputes caused by US refusal to honor Franco-American Treaty. Adams criticized French Rev, France slowed relation w/ US. US delegates to meet foreign minister Talleyrand, 3 agents (X, Y, Z) required $ for meeting him.
Undeclared naval war with France, late 1790's 1794, French begun seizing US vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, Congress responded by ordering navy to attack any French ships on US coast. Conflict became violent after X,Y, Z. Peace convention in 1800 w/ new dictator, Napoleon, ended conflict.
British seizure of American ships France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 (4 laws passed by Federalist Congress under Adams. First 3 in response to XYZ, aimed at French and Irish. Sedition Act aimed to stifle Dem-Rep opposition). Naturalization Act: increased period for immigrant to be citizen (5-14 yrs). Alien Act: president could arrest & deport dangerous aliens. Alien Enemy Act: arrest & deportation of citizens at war w/ US. Sedition Act: illegal to publish bad about fed govt.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798 and 1799) Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Doctrine of Nullification Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
Election of 1800, tie, Jefferson and Burr 2 Dem-Reps Thom Jeff & Aaron Burr beat Fed John Adams but tied w/ each other. Decision went to House of Reps, tied again. Jefferson finally chosen president, Burr became vp. Led to 12th Amen, requires president & vp of same party to run on same ticket.
Revolution of 1800 Jefferson’s election changed direction of government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, thus a "revolution."
Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Jefferson refused to deliver commissions to Adams’ Midnight Appointments. 1 appointee (Marbury) sued Secr of State (Madison) to get paid. Court said Madison need not pay. Supreme Court's right to judicial review est, Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
Chief Justice John Marshall Justice Marshall’s (Fed) decisions on Supreme Court promoted fed power over state power & est judiciary as branch of govt equal to legislative and executive. Marbury v. Madison he est Court’s power of judicial review, allows Court to declare laws unconst.
12th Amendment Brought about by Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vp nominees would run on same party ticket. Before then, all of candidates ran against each other, winner becoming president and second-place becoming vp.
Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges Adams appointed large # of Federalist judges to fed courts on his last day as president to try and keep Federalist control of the govt (Feds had lost presidency & much of Congress to Repubs).
Justice Samuel Chase Federalist judge appointed by Washington to Supreme Court. Chase was Rev War hero & signed Dec of Ind. Jefferson disagreed w/ his rulings & had him impeached for publicly criticizing Jefferson administration to ML grand jury, Chase acquitted by Senate.
Louisiana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson, loose construction, 1803 US got Miss R to Rocky Mtns from Napoleon for 15 mil (area important for trade). Napoleon needed the $ for European campaigns & rebellion in Haiti. Const did not give fed govt power to buy land so Jeff used loose construction to justify purchase.
Hamilton-Burr duel After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Repub he switched to Federalist party and ran for gov of NY. When he lost he blamed Hamilton (successful Fed politician) of making defamatory remarks. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, Hamilton killed on July 11, 1804.
Burr expedition, treason trial After duel Burr fled NY & joined group of mercenaries in south Louisiana. US arrested them on way to Mexico. Burr claimed they intended to attack Mexico, US believed they were getting Mexican aid to start secession. Burr tried w/ treason, acquitted.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark expedition and its findings, 1804-1806 Jefferson wanted to map/explore Louisiana Purchase region. Started in STL, travelled up Mizzou R to Great Divide then down Columbia R to Pacific Ocean. Made maps & recorded scientific discoveries, facilitated settlement of region & travel to Pacific.
Second Great Awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827) An American naturalist painter.
Northwest posts British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Barbary pirates Name given to countries on Mediterranean coast of N Africa who demanded $ for not attacking ships in Med. 1795-1801 US paid Barbary states for protection against pirates. Jeff stopped paying tribute, US fought Barbary Wars (1801-05), US cont paying.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 1807 American ship Chesapeake refused to allow British on Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, Leopard fired on Chesapeake. As a result of the incident US expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
Embargo of 1807, opposition (replaced by non-intercourse act) Issued by Jefferson forbade US trading ships from leaving the US, meant to force Britain & France to change policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of US trade. Hard to enforce b/c merchants opposed it. This hurt US trade.
Non-Intercourse Act, 1809 (replaced embargo act of 1807) Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2.
Macon’s Bill No. 2, 1810 Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Tecumseh (1763-1813) Shawnee chief & his brother Tenskwatawa (Prophet) tried to unite Northwest Indian tribes. League of tribes beat by US led by William Henry Harrison at Battle of Tippecanoe (1811). Tecumseh killed fighting for Brits in War of 1812 at Battle of the Thames.
War of 1812 (1812-1814) US & Britain, caused by US outrage over impressed US sailors & Brit aid to Indians attacking US on west frontier. War Hawks (led by Henry Clay & John C Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. U.S. troops led by Jackson seized FL, Brits managed to & burn DC.
Treaty of Ghent (Dec 1814) Restored status quo, required US to give back FL. 2 weeks later, Jackson’s troops beat British at Battle of New Orleans, not knowing a peace treaty had already been signed. War strengthened US nationalism & encouraged growth of industry.
Impressment British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
War Hawks Western settlers who advocated war w/ Britain b/c they hoped to acquire Britain’s NW posts (and FL or even Canada) & b/c they felt Brits were aiding Indians & telling them to attack US frontier. In Congress, War Hawks were Henry Clay & John C. Calhoun.
Causes of the War of 1812 British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral US trading ships, & reasons given by War Hawks (British were inciting Indians on frontier to attack Americans and the war would allow the US to seize northwest posts, FL, and possibly Canada).
Federalist opposition to the War of 1812 The Federalist party was composed of New England merchants who wanted good relations with Britain & free trade. New England merchants met at Hartford Convention to protest war and the U.S. government’s restrictions on trade.
Naval engagements in the War of 1812 The U.S. won important battles on Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
"Star Spangled Banner" Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote "Star Spangled Banner" about experience of seeing the US flag still flying above the fort in the morning.
Events of the War of 1812 Oliver Perry led 1813 naval victory against Brits on Lake Erie. DC was captured and burned by Brits in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for US in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after signing of Treaty of Ghent had ended war.
Jackson’s victory at New Orleans, January 1815 Large Brit invasion force repelled by Jackson at NO. Jackson given details of Brit battle plans by French pirate, Jean Laffite. 2500 Brits killed, 8 US. Neither side knew Treaty of Ghent had ended War 2 weeks earlier. Victory inspired US nationalism.
Hartford Convention, resolution, Dec 1814 New England merchants who opposed Embargo & War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to Const & advocated right of states to nullify fed laws & discussed idea of seceding from US if desires were ignored. Hartford Convention led to demise of Feds.
Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence The U.S.’s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride, cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
Clay’s American System Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
Second bank of the U.S., a reversal of Jeffersonian ideas As a Repub, Jefferson opposed Natl Bank. 2nd Bank of US was est in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
Tariff of 1816 – Protective This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of cheaper British manufactured goods.
Jackson in Florida, 1817 Seminole Indians in FL, encouraged by Spanish, launched series of raids until US President JQ Adams ordered Jackson to seize Spanish forts in north FL. Jackson’s successful attacks convinced Spanish they could not defend FL against US.
Adams-Onis Treay, 1819 Spain sold Florida to the U.S. and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
Growth of industry in New England, textiles Industrial rev occurred in England (1700s), US began to manufacture goods w/ factories & machines post 1812 War. New England (not South) was manufacturing center b/c they had rivers (for water power) & better roads & canals. Textiles = 1st major industry.
Samuel Slater (1768-1835) When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
Robert Fulton, Clermont A famous inventor, who designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807.
Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine") 1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy and reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy.
Interchangeable parts, 1799-1800 Whitney developed manufacturing system w/ standardized parts (made them interchangeable). With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the US govt.
Boston Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
Daniel Webster (1782-1852) Great American orator who gave several important speeches as a Mass. Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
National Road (also called Cumberland Road) The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
Internal improvements The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Erie Canal 1825 - The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.
Election of 1824: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay Pop vote: Jackson-42%, Adams-32%, Clay-13%, Crawford-13%. Electoral: Jackson-99, Adams-84, Crawford-41, Clay-37. House: Adams-13, Jackson-7, Crawford-4, Clay-dropped. Jackson didn’t have majority in electoral vote so election went to H of Reps, Adams won.
"Corrupt Bargain" The charge made by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
Tariff of Abominations, (Tariff of 1828) Raised tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected North but harmed South; South said that tariff was economically discriminatory & unconst b/c it violated state's rights. It passed b/c New England favored high tariffs.
Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nullification VP Calhoun published “SC Exposition,” proposed each state in union use right to nullify unconst act of Congress. Written after Tariff of 1828, SC threatened to secede if tariff wasn't revoked, Calhoun suggested nullification as more peaceful solution.
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828 Jackson appointed common people to govt positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’ welfare became Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen & farmers. Jackson was 1st non-aristocrat to be elected president. Election was rev of "Common Man."
Age of the Common Man Referred to Jackson's presidency, felt govt should be run by common people, a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class w/ ideas formed by liberal education & free press. All white men could now vote, allowed Jackson to be elected.
Jacksonian Democracy (Jacksonian era, 1829-1841) Many reforms: free public school, more women's rights, better work conditions in factories, rise of Abolition movement. Election portrayed Jackson as common man, JQA attacked for aristocratic ways. Electors in electoral college also chosen by pop vote.
Franchise extended, spoils system Franchise extended: more people given right to vote, even men w/ no land. Spoils system: winner of election may do whatever they want w/ staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people & replacing them w/ his own.
National Republicans After 1824 election, part of Dem-Reps party joined JQA, Clay, & Daniel Webster to oppose Jackson. Favored nationalistic measures like recharter of Bank of US, high tariffs & internal improvements at natl expense. Not too successful, joined Whigs in 1830s.
Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process.
Kitchen Cabinet (Lower Cabinet) Small group of Jackson's friends & advisors who were especially influential in his 1st yrs of his presidency. Jackson conferred w/ them instead of regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, called it "Kitchen Cabinet."
Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears" (winter of 1838-1839) Minority of Cherokee tribe had surrendered their GA land in 1835 Treaty of New Echota. Troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in GA & moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on trail, journey known as “Trail of Tears.”
Worchester v. Georgia (1832); Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) Worchester v. Georgia: Sup Court said GA had no jurisdiction over Cherokee land. GA didn't enforce decision & Pres Jackson didn't support Court. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: Court ruled Indians weren't independent nations & could be regulated by fed govt.
Whigs: origins, policies Conservatives, popular w/ pro-Bank people & plantation owners. Came from Natl Rep Party, once largely Feds. Name: Brit party that opposed King George in US Rev. Whigs were Clay Webster & for a while Calhoun. Policies: support industry & protective tariffs
Maysville Road Veto (1830) Proposed building road in KY (Clay’s home) w/ fed $. Jackson vetoed b/c he didn't like Clay, Van Buren said NY and Penn got transportation upgrades w/ state $. Applied strict interpretation of Const by saying fed govt could not pay for internal upgrades.
Created by: stuman52