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8thGr-Hist-STAAR Rev

8th Grade US History - STAAR Comprehensive Review

Reasons for exploration Religion (God), wealth (gold), fame & international recognition (glory)
When is Jamestown founded? 1607
What is the first permanent English settlement? Jamestown
When is Plymouth founded? 1620
What did the pilgrims do in Plymouth? Signed the Mayflower Compact to establish self-government.
What was the first representative assembly in North America? Virginia House of Burgesses
Why were the colonies established? religious and political freedom as well as economic opportunity (mercantilism and opportunity to own land)
What were the New England colonies? CT, NH, MA, RI
When were the New England colonies settled and by whom? Pilgrims (1620) and Puritans (1630s) to escape religious persecution in England
What were the Middle Colonies? NY, NJ, PA, DE
Why was NY important? trading area
Who founded Pennsylvania? William Penn (for religious freedom)
What were the Southern Colonies? VA, MD, NC, SC, GA
Who founded Maryland? Catholics feeling religious persecution.
Why was Georgia created? For debtors
What were conflicts that occurred with Native Americans? Early settlers; and French & Indian War
Why was slavery established? The need for cheap laborers to grow cash crops encouraged this for white settlers.
Where did farmers grow their crops? Plantations in the south using slaves to do the work so they could produce the cash crops cheaply.
When did slavery become controversial? When America acquired new territories.
Who was the founder of Connecticut? Thomas Hooker
Who was the "Father of American Democracy?" Thomas Hooker
What was the "first written Constitution?" Fundamental Orders of Connecticut adopted by Connecticut.
How was Pennsylvania established? Refuge for Quakers. William Penn supported freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and did not require residents to serve in a militia.
Who was one of the founders of Rhode Island? Anne Hutchinson
Who was banished from Massassachusetts colony? Anne Hutchinson
What occurred in French & Indian War? British colonists wanted to take over French land in North America. British soldiers fought against French soldiers and Native Americans.
Who did the Native Americans fight for in the French & Indian War? French
When did the French & Indian War end? 1763 with the Treaty of Paris
What resulted from the French & Indian War? British began taxing colonists to pay for the war. Proclamation line of 1763 was established.
Why was the Proclamation Line of 1763 established? To keep colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains.
What was the American reaction to the Sugar Act? taxation without representation
What was the Stamp Act? Tax on documents
What was the American reaction to the Stamp Act? protests; Sons of Liberty form
What were the Townshend Acts? Tax on imported goods
What was the American reaction to the Townshend Acts? Boycott British
What was the American reaction to the Tea Act? Boston Tea Party
What are the Intolerable Acts? Closed Boston
What was the American reaction to the Intolerable Acts? Formed First Continental Congress
Declaration of Independence Document written by Thomas Jefferson, claiming independence from Great Britain based on the philosophies of Locke, Montesquieu, and Blackstone (1776)
What was the first battle of the American Revolution? Lexington & Concord
What occurred at Lexington & Concord? British planned to arrest American leaders; Paul Revere made famous ride to warn about the British attack
What was the turning point of the American Revolution? Battle of Saratoga
What occurred at the Battle of Saratoga? important victory because it influenced foreign nations to support America in its war against England; France used its Navy in the Americans effort for victory.
What was the last major battle of the American Revolution? Yorktown
What occurred at Yorktown? French ships prevented British supplies. British surrendered because of lack of supplies. British lost hope of winning war and began negotiating Treat of Paris 1783
What ended the American Revolution? Treaty of Paris 1783
What occurred with the Treaty of Paris 1783 13 colonies became independent from England. Boundaries of the new nation were Mississippi River to west, Canada to North, and Spanish Florida to south.
John Locke Writings on the nature of government influenced the founding fathers. Government is developed by the consent of the people and inalienable rights (life, liberty & property)
Charles de Montesquieu French political philosopher who defined the principle of separation of powers and checks & balances in government.
William Blackstone gave the 1st University lectures on English Common Law.
George Mason writings influenced new government. He believed in the need to restrict government power and refused to ratify the Constitution until the Bill of Rights were added.
Magna Carta Limited the power of the King; guaranteed the right of trial by jury.
English Bill of Rights called for frequent elections; guaranteed right to bear arms, forbade cruel and unusual punishment; restated trial by jury.
George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, President of the Constitutional Convention, and First US President. Helped create a strong central government.
Samuel Adams Boston Patriot who opposed British taxation. He established the committee of correspondence. Leader of the Sons of Liberty and insisted a Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution before ratification.
Benjamin Franklin author, publisher, inventor and diplomat
Alexander Hamilton author of many of the Federalist Papers; First Secretary of Treasury; Leader of the Federalist Party
Patrick Henry Patriot from Virginia, opposed ratification of Constitution because of potential limitations on state's rights. "Give me liberty, or give me death!"
James Madison "Father of the Constitution". One of the 3 authors of the "Federalist Papers", author of the "Bill of Rights".
Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense and American Crisis. He urged Americans to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution.
Abigail Adams wife of John Adams, known for her stance on women's rights in letters to her husband
Wentworth Cheswell Educated African-American Patriot, made the same midnight ride as Paul Revere warning that the British were coming.
Mercy Otis Warren Patriot writer that supported independence and convinced others to join the cause. First woman historian of the American Revolution, published plays, books and poetry.
James Armistead African-American spy during the American Revolution. Spied on Lord Cornwallis' camp.
Bernardo de Galvez Spaniard who held off British in New Orleans, but allowed Americans use of the port.
Crispus Attucks American hero and martyr of the Boston Massacre
Haym Salomon Polish Jew who spied for Americans and was held as a translator for the Germans by the British.
Marquis de Lafayette French noble who helped Americans during the Revolutionary War.
John Paul Jones Founder of the US Navy. Led raids on British ships and famous for yelling "I have not yet begun to fight"
King George III King of England during the American Revolution
Articles of Confederation Created just before the Battle of Yorktown. This was first attempt at national government by the American colonies. Its weaknesses were the lack of a strong central government.
Philadelphia Convention Delegates met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to revise the Articles of Confederation; instead they wrote an entirely new constitution and formed a new government.
Anti-Federalist opposes ratification of Constitution
Federalist supports ratification of Constitution
Anti-Federalist says Too much government power. Took too much power form states. Tyranny of the Majority. Legislative should be more powerful than Executive branch. Needed Bill of Rights to protect individuals.
Federalist says... Creates checks & balances to prevent tyranny. Tyranny of Majority not possible because of US diversity. Supported Bill of Rights to be added after ratification. Federalist Papers wer written to support a new Constitution.
1787 Constitution Ratified.
Federalists - Important Leaders John Adams and Alexander
Anti-Federalists - Important Leaders Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
Bill of Rights: 1st Amendment Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Petition, and Assembly
Bill of Rights: 2nd Amendment Right to bear Arms
Bill of Rights: 3rd Amendment protection from quartering troops
Bill of Rights: 4th Amendment protection from unreasonable search and seizure
Bill of Rights: 5th Amendment grand jury, protection from self incrimination
Bill of Rights: 6th Amendment right to jury for criminal trial, speedy trial
Bill of Rights: 7th Amendment Right to jury in civil
Bill of Rights: 8th Amendment No cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail
Bill of Rights: 9th Amendment Protection of rights not stated in the Constitution
Bill of Rights: 10th Amendment Powers not listed go to the states and people