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OC CH 15 & 16 REVIEW


1. Fort Sumter (15.1) April 12, 1861, Confederate troops attacked this federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War
2. Lincoln's goal at the start of the war (15.1) to preserve the Union
3. Strengths and weaknesses of the Union (north) (15.1) Larger population, better transportation network (railroads), stronger economy; had to fight on enemy territory
4. Strengths and weaknesses of the Confederacy (south) (15.1) Better military leadership, fighting on home soil, passionate about fighting for their way of life; didn't have a developed economy
5. Union army's goal in July 1861 (15.2) Capture the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia
6. First Battle of Bull Run (15.2) July 1861, the first major battle of the Civil War, also called Battle of Manassas, Confederate victory that showed the Union the war would not be won quickly or easily
7. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson (15.2) Confederate general who stood "like a stone wall" against approaching Union troops at the First Battle of Bull Run and inspired his soldiers to victory
8. George B. McClellan (15.2) General in charge of the Union army who was forced to retreat from Richmond by General Robert E. Lee's Confederate troops
9. Robert E. Lee (15.2) General of the Confederate forces who successfully led several major battles in the Civil War until his defeat at Gettysburg, after which he surrendered to the Union's General Grant at Appomatox Courthouse
10. Seven Days' Battles (15.2) A series of clashes during June 1862 in which the Confederate army forced the Union army to retreat from Richmond, Virginia
11. Second Battle of Bull Run (15.2) August 1862, 3-day battle in which the Confederates crushed the Union attack and forced them to retreat in defeat, a major victory that made Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee decide to take the war into Union territory
12. Battle of Antietam (15.2) Sept. 1862, known as the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War and of U.S. history, an important victory for the Union that stopped Gen. Lee and the Confederates from advancing into Union territory
13. Ironclads, and the MONITOR vs. the MERRIMACK (a.k.a. the VIRGINIA) (15.2) Ships heavily armed with iron, a famous battle between two Union and Confederate ironclads in Hampton Roads that saved the Union fleet and helped it continue its naval blockade, the Union MONITOR forced the Confederate MERRIMACK/VIRGINIA to retreat
14. Union's naval blockade (15.2) Union ships off the coast of the southern states that prevented the South from selling or receiving goods and seriously damaged the southern economy, difficult to maintain because the Union had to patrol 1,000's of miles of coastline
15. Ulysses S. Grant (15.3) General of Union forces who led the troops in several successful battles, accepted Lee's surrender at Appomatox Courthouse which marked the end of the Civil War
16. Battle of Shiloh (15.3) April 1862 battle in which the Union army gained greater control of the Mississippi River Valley so they could attack southern communication and transportation networks
17. David Farragut (15.3) First U.S. Navy admiral who commanded the Union naval blockade and helped the Union capture the important port city of New Orleans
18. Siege of Vicksburg (15.3) May 1863, Union General Grant's troops surrounded the city, cutting it off from supplies, shelling it repeatedly, and forced the city to surrender to the Union
19. Emancipation Proclamation (15.4) Lincoln's 1862 military order to free the Confederate slaves; caused many abolitionists and African Americans to rejoice; border states who had not joined the Confederacy were allowed to keep their slaves however
20. 54th Massachusetts Infantry (15.4) A military unit of brave African American soldiers who led a heroic charge against a fort in South Carolina and symbolized the importance of African Americans' contibution to the Civil War
21. Copperheads (15.4) Also known as Peace Democrats, were midwesterners who opposed the war and agreed with the South, Lincoln had them jailed without evidence or trial, which means their constitutional right of HABEAS CORPUS was ignored
22. Clara Barton and women's roles during the war (15.4) A woman called the "angel of the battlefield" for her help with the wounded and dying soldiers, women also worked in factories, on farms and plantations while the men were away fighting; many also disguised themselves as men and fought in battles
23. Battle of Gettysburg (15.5) A key 3-day battle that began on July 1, 1863 and resulted in over 40,000 casualties and a victory for the Union that was a turning point of the war
24. Gettysburg Address (15.5) Nov. 19, 1863, President Lincoln's famous speech in which he praised the bravery of the Union soldiers and renewed the commitment to winning the Civil War so that the Dec. of Independence ideals of liberty, equality, and democracy would be preserved
25. William Tecumseh Sherman (15.5) Union army general who used "total war" to destroy everything in his troops' path in his famous March to the Sea and captured the southern city of Atlanta
26. Appomattox Courthouse (15.5) April 9, 1865, where Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, thus ending the Civil War
27. Effects of the war (15.5) Southern slavery was ended, almost 620,000 Americans had died, southern economy destroyed, majority of former slaves had no homes or jobs, now the problem of how to reunite the United States
28. Reconstruction (16.1) Lasted from 1865 to 1877, the process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the Union
29. Ten Percent Plan (16.1) Lincoln's plan to readmit the southern states into the Union, 10% of the state's population had to swear an oath of loyalty to the United States and agree that slavery was illegal
30. Freedmen's Bureau (16.1) An agency established by Congress in 1865 that helped freed slaves and poor southerners during Reconstruction by providing food, education, and legal help
31. Andrew Johnson (16.1) Lincoln's vice president who was sworn into office after Lincoln's assassination, a southern former slaveholder who made it much easier for Confederate officials to return to the Union by granting them a presidential pardon
32. Black Codes (16.2) Laws passed in southern states after the Civil War that greatly limited the freedom of African Americans, such as preventing them from owning guns, arresting them if they could not prove they had a job, not allowing them to rent property outside cities
33. Radical Republicans (16.2) Members of Congress who felt that southern states needed to make great social changes before they could be readmitted into the Union and wanted the federal government to force the changes
34. Thirteenth Amendment (A) and Fourteenth Amendment (16.1 & 16.2) (A) Made slavery illegal in the U.S. (B) Guaranteed African Americans equal protection under the law
35. Reconstruction Acts (16.2) Laws that put the southern states under U.S. military control and required then to draft new constitutions upholding the 14th Amendment which granted African Americans equal protection under the law
36. Fifteenth Amendment (16.2) 1870, gave African American men the right to vote
37. Carpetbaggers (A) and scalawags (B) (16.3) (A) Name that southerners called northern-born Republicans (Union supporters) who moved south after the Civil War (B) Name Southern Democrats called white southern Republicans who had supported the Union, meant "greedy rascals"
38. Hiram Revels (16.3) 1870, first African American in the U.S. Senate
39. Ku Klux Klan (KKK) (16.3) Secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights, particularly their right to vote
40. Compromise of 1877 (16.3) Agreement to settle the disputed presidential election of 1876, Democrats agreed to accept Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president in return for the removal of federal troops from the South
41. Jim Crow laws (16.3) 1880s, laws that enforced segregation in the South
42. segregation (16.3) The forced separation of whites and African Americans in public places (such as separate restrooms or drinking fountains, for example)
43. PLESSY v. FERGUSON (16.3) 1896, Supreme Court case that said that segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites were provided
44. poll tax (16.3) A special tax people had to pay before they could vote in an effort to prevent African Americans from voting in the South, since the fee was too high for them to be able to pay
45. sharecropping (16.3) A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which many African American farmers worked land on plantations in return for a small portion of the crop; not much different from slavery
Created by: enid.robert