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Chapters 16-18

Reconstruction, the West and the Industrial

After the Civil War... the infrastructure (roads, bridges and railroads) of the South was in very bad shape.
What did the term "Reconstruction" eventually come to mean... just rebuilding the bridges and railroads in the South.
What did the Radical Republicans think of Lincoln's plan... they thought it was too easy on the South and the ex Confederates and didn't do enough for freed slaves.
President Andrew Johnson thought that African Americans and ex slaves... were not the equal of white people and should not be given any authority.
The Freemen's Bureau was... created to keep freed slaves from getting land.
Many freed slaves... had neither the good land, nor the money to farm on their own and moved to cities to try to find a job away from the plantations.
Black Codes... attempted to limit the rights of black folks.
Why did the Racial Republicans want to get ride President Johnson.... he was not supporting the rights of ex slaves and was too easy on Confederates.
President Andrew Johnson... was impeached by the House, but not removed from office by the Senate.
The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments... gave ex slaves the basic civil rights of other Americans; gave black men the right to vote; freed the slaves in the whole nation.
The end of Reconstruction came about... when many in the North had lost interest in the issues.
With the end of Reconstruction... Southern state were once again free to limit the rights of black folks and the ex slaves often found themselves working as they had before, but as sharecroppers or tenant farmers on white owned plantations.
The Indian Intercourse Act (1834) said... no whites on Indian land without permission.
In the mid 1800s, what was causing a major change to the way of life for the Plains Indians west of the Mississippi River... lots of white folks were moving onto Indian land.
Right after the Civil War... most Indians were living and faming on small reservations.
The Pueblo Indians... cultivated corn and lived in adobe house.
Indians of the Pacific Northwest... fishing and hunting around villages.
Plains Indians... nomadic - followed the herds.
By the later 1800s, the apparent goal of the United States' Indian policy was... to move the Plains Indians onto relatively small reservations and to force the Plains Indians into a farming life style and civilize them.
In the 1870s, what caused a problem for the Indians in the Black Hills reservation and eventually led to the Battle of Little Big Horn... the discovery of gold meant Indians would be kicked of a large part of their land.
In general, what were the Plains Indians fighting for... their desire to maintain their way of life on the open plains.
What was the most important factor in ending the Plains Indians way of life... the killing of the herds of buffalo.
What did the Homestead Act of 1862 give to people... land on which they could farm.
Railroads were given large tracts of land in the West... to encourage the railroads to build lots of new lines.
Before the spread of the railroads... farmers in the West and many very rural areas were more out of touch with society in general; most towns and cities were built along large rivers or on the coast; and getting fresh produce to distant markets was a problem.
Ranchers could control large areas of land without owning all of it... by controlling access to water.
The first ethnic group to be excluded from immigration into the US were... the Chinese.
What kind of ranching dominated the "open range"... large cattle ranches grazing over large areas.
Barbed wire... was a major factor in ending the older type of open range ranching.
The mining bonanza of the Southwest US... saw many mines open and then close as soon as the gold or silver ran out and resulted in a large number of "ghost towns" where mines had run out.
The Grange movement... created inner-city cecret societies.
In the late 1800s and early 1900s... the cities were growing much more than the rural areas.
Two major reasons for the great success of American manufacturing and industry in the late 1800s were... people willing to work for cheap wages and the abundance of natural resources.
The safety regulations in most mills during the last half of the 1800s... were based on the assumption that workers worked at their own risk and were easily replaced.
Created by: jmc83