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Absolute monarch kings or queens who held all of the power within their states’ boundaries.
Divine right idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God’s representative on earth.
Huguenots French protestants.
Intendents Government agents used by Louis XIV who collected taxes and administered justice.
Edict of Nantes Declaration made by Henry of Navarre of France allowing Huguenots freedom to worship in France.
Scientific Revolution a major change in European thought, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
Geocentric theory Theory that the earth is the center of the universe.
Heliocentric Theory Idea that the sun is at the center of the solar system.
Scientific method logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.
Enlightenment intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
Philosophe social critics or philosophers from France.
Social contract Idea from Thomas Hobbes that suggested all humans are naturally selfish and wicked and must had over their rights to a strong ruler to create/run their government.
Estate social classes of France. 1st Estate: Church leaders. 2nd estate: rich nobles. 3rd estate: 97% of the people.
Tennis Court Oath a pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
National Assembly a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
Estates-General Gathering of all three estates of France called by the king.
Great Fear a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789.
Bastille French prison torn down in the early days of the French Revolution.
Jacobins radical political party during the French Revolution
Guillotine a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror period from 1793-1794 when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.
Napoleonic Code a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon.
Battle of Trafalgar an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under command of Horatio Nelson.
Continental System Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy.
Peninsular War a conflict in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon’s French troops out of Spain.
Scorched-earth policy the practice of buring crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
Created by: spencerfaulk