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cnc1 chapter 4

What is the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights seeks to eliminate discrimination based on race, color, religion, gender, age, disability, or national origin.
What is Negative Liberties? civil liberties are associated with the absence of government interference or coercion. civil liberties protect individual freedoms by placing limits on what the government may do
positive liberties civil rights, on the other hand, are generally considered positive liberties because they are associated with actions that government must take to ensure that all citizens are able to participate fully in society
equality of opportunity the idea that every individual must have the same chance to succeed in life
equality of outcome the idea that government policies must be designed to ensure not only that all members of society have the same chance of succeeding, but that all members of society actually succeed.
affirmative action a range of policies aimed at promoting equality of outcome by providing expanded educational and employment opportunities for members of a previously disadvantaged group
BAKKE Case/reverse discrimination favored the rights and opportunities of minority groups at the expense of those who were not given the advantage
quotas race could be used as a criterion in higher education admissions decisions
abolitionists those committed to bringing an end to the practice of slavery
importation clause could not import slaves after a 20 year period 1808
dred scott vs sanford a slave who had moved with his master across various state lines, including Illinois (a free state) and Wisconsin (a free territory)
Missouri Compromise of 1820 extended freedom to any slave whose master established residence in a free territory applied in his situation.
Confederacy of Southern States the government established by the 11 southern states that seceded from the us during the civil war
emancipation proclamation freeing all slaves in states in active rebellion against the Union
civil war amendments 13, 14, 15th
reconstruction the period after the war 1865-1877 during which the confederate states were rebuilt and reintegrated into the Union
radical republicans members of the republican party who supported reconstruction policies and programs after the civil war
freedmen former slaves who were freed during the civil war and enjoyed full citizenship rights, including voting, and running for political office, during reconstruction in the south
jim crow laws state and local laws in place between 1877 and the mid 1960s that mandated the segregation in all public places
civil rights act of 1875 acts passed by congress to prohibit discrimination in public facilities and accommodations. It was ruled unconstitutional by the supreme court in the civil rights cases 1883
plessy v ferguson plessy part black in a white train car and expressed his race and was asked to be moved to the black train and refused. supreme court ruled the cars were separate and equal and ruled against plessy
suffragists advocates of extending voting rights to women
seneca falls convention meeting brought together a group of 300 males and female activists for two days to discuss the appropriate remedies for discrimination against women
declaration of sentiments rights of women as right bearing individuals be acknowledged and respected by society
elizabeth cady stanton stanton formed the national woman suffrage association in 1869 to push for a constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote
susan b anthony helped stanton form the NWSA
19th amendment right to vote was given to women
NAACP national association for the advancement of colored Persons founded in 1909 to combat violence against African Americans particularly the practice of lynching
missouri v canada lloyd gaines sued the university of missouri law school because he was denied admission due to his race
sweatt v painter sweatt was denied admission in the law school at texas so the school opened a law school in Austin for colored people
brown v board of education of topeka, kansas I and II colored girl was closer to white school and dad sued board of education because white school was not equal to black schools. supreme court ruled in favor of brown and the schools had to desegregate swiftly
rosa parks took a seat in the front of the colored section of a bus. when the bus filled with white passengers the driver asked her and three other black passengers to vacate their seats and move to the back of the bus. the others complied, rosa refused.
sclc southern christian leadership conference
sncc student nonviolent coordinating committee
core congress of racial equality organized road trips call freedom riders to venture into the deep south and directly challenge segregated facilities along the way
letter from a birmingham jail a response to a statement by white clergymen who sympathized with his cause but criticized his tactics by king
bloody sunday march 1965 a march from selma to montgomery and were attacked by police
civil rights act of 1964 desegregation of public facilities and equal protection of the right to vote
voting rights act of 1965 targeted restrictions on or qualifications for black voting rights, including literacy tests, poll taxes, and limits to voter registration
league of women voters continue the fight for women's rights
pcsw presidential commission on the status of women which was tasked with investigating the treatment of women in society and advising the administration on issues related to employment, education, and the law
protective legislation policies aimed at treating women differently in order to accommodate their biological difference promote their health, and protect them from exploitation
Now the purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men
Equal Rights Amendment Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Never ratified
Sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
Title IX/Violence Against Women Act/Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act more equitable funding for women's athletics.
pay discrimination occurs when men and women are paid differently for doing equal work.
Executive Order 9066 the relocation of 120,000 Japanese (many of them American citizens) to internment camps for the duration of World War II
Korematsu v US challenged this action by the national government as a direct violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Rational Basis Test the Court presumes that the government's action is valid. The government need only prove that its action is reasonably related to a legitimate government interest, and the individual bringing suit against the government must demonstrate that the governmen
Intermediate Scrutiny requires that the action advances important governmental interests, and that the means used are substantially related to these government interests. Using the scale analogy, the Court sees both government interests and individual interests as somewhat equ
Strict Scrutiny three questions are asked (see Figure 4). First, does the case involve a fundamental freedom or suspect classification? Second, does the action serve a compelling government interest? And third, is the action taken by the government narrowly tailored to a
Suspect Classification refers to a group that has previously suffered systematic discrimination or disadvantage based on race, religion, or national origin., cases involving discrimination against an individual in this classification require the highest level of scrutiny by t
AIM formed in 1968 and used a number of radical tactics to bring awareness to the living conditions on reservations and to demand equal treatment under the law
Mexican American Legal Defense 1968 to secure Mexican American rights in the courts. Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 a disability as "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life
Americans with Disabilities act 1990 a disability as "a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities."[19] It protects the disabled from discrimination in employment, public entities (such as schools), public accommodations, public transpor
GLAAD The Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) organized in 1985 to protest coverage of the AIDS epidemic by the New York Post.GLAAD has focused its efforts on media coverage in order to shape portrayal of the gay and lesbian communities and to ens
De Jure Segregation segregation grounded in the law
De Facto Segregation segregation that has no legal basis but is practice nontheless
Who started Affirmative Action programs? ? first instituted by the federal government during World War II, and were subsequently broadened and strengthened in executive orders issued by presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon
How did today's Republican Political Party start? ? moral outrage began to build against the institution of slavery, political opposition began to organize, with the anti-slavery Republican Party forming in 1854
What was the immediate effect of the Emancipation Proclamation? South Carolina responded by seceding from the Union on December 20, 1860, and six other states followed before Lincoln had even assumed office
How long did it take the 19th Amendment to be proposed and ratified? 40 years
What was the effect of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott? the city of Montgomery changed its policy
Who was Martin Luther King Jr and what did he do in the Civil rights Movement? the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), a group of ministers committed to equal treatment of the races as well as nonviolence and civil disobedience. They led groups in marches and peaceful protests throughout the Sout
What are the major provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? This act guaranteed equal treatment in schools, workplaces, and public facilities, banning any form of discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin
What are the tactics most minority groups use to gain civil rights? staging public demonstrations, appealing to the courts to secure equal protection under the law, pressuring lawmakers to bring about public reform, and using the media to raise public awareness and shape perceptions.
Is Government supposed to protect freedom, maintain order or promote equality? Is there conflict between these goals? Maintain order yes Since the end of Civil War and the ratification of the 14th Amendment, however, the government has understood protection of these rights to include the promotion of equality.
Created by: jjcma5
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