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Muscle/Skin Dse

Diseases of Muskuloskeletal and Integumentary Systems

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow is? Osteomyelitis
A common cause of Osteomyelitis is? Staphylococcus aureus
A common complication of an open FX (AKA: Compund FX)is? Osteomyelitis
Signs and Symptoms of Osteomyelitis include? 1. Pain 2. Chills 3. Pyrexia 4. Leukocytosis
A complication of osteomyelitis is bone necrosis also called? A sequestrum
True or False: Sequestrums respond well to antibiotics? TRUE- it's caused by bacteria
Tuberculosis is primarily a disease of the? Lungs
If left untreated, pulmonary TB can spread to what? Bones
What is the name for TB that affects the vertebral column in children? Pott's Disease
Pott's disease can lead to? 1. Vertebral deformities 2. Paralysis
How are the vertebral deformities caused by Pott's disease treated? Surgical correction
TB responds well to what form of treatment? Antibiotics
Rickets is a disease that affects who? Infants and young children
A deficiency of Calcium and/or Vit D causes what disease? Rickets
Rickets causes the bones of a child to be? Soft and more likely to bend causing deformities(bow-legged/knock-kneed)
The muscles of a child with Rickets are flaccid because? Muscles need calcium for proper muscle contraction
What are 2 other characteristics of children with rickets? Delayed teething and a "pot belly" abdomen
What condition is associated with Rickets? Malabsorption syndrome
What is the most common prophylaxis and treatment for Rickets? 1. Sunlight(10 mins/day) 2. RDA of Ca and Vit D
What is a softening and decalcification of the bones in adults called? Osteomalacia(OM)
Which bones are particularly affected by OM? 1. Bones of Vertebral column 2. Pelvic bones 3. Leg bones
Why are mainly the vertebral bones,pelvic bones,and legs affected by OM? Because the body weight is mostly supported in these areas
What disease causes a tendency of the bones to bend, deform, and FX(fracture)easily? Osteomalacia(OM)
What condition is associated with Osteomalacia? Malabsoption syndrome
What is the most common prophylaxis and treatment for OM? 1. Sunlight(10 mins/day) 2. RDA of Ca and Vit D
Breast CA,Colon CA,Prostate CA,MS,Osteoporosis(OP),Heart Dse,DM,and HTN are associated with what Vitamin deficiency? Vitamin D
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica(OFC)usually results from? Hyperparathyroidism(causes bone decalcification)
Signs and Symptoms of Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica include? 1. Nephrolithiasis(kidney stones) 2. Bone Deformities 3. Spontaneous FXs
What is the Tx for OFC? 1. Removal of parathyroid tumor 2. Parathyroidectomy
What is the name for a loss or thinning of Bone Mineral Density(BMD)? Osteoporosis(AKA: Osteopenia)
What are the risk factors for developing OP? 1. Female gender 2. Family Hx 3. Deficient Vit D and/or Ca in the diet 4. Sedentary lifestyle 5. Smoking 6. Thin or small frame 7. 1-2 ETOH drinks/day doubles risk of OP 8. Excessive caffeine intake 9. Being Caucasian or Asian 10. Low estrogen -
The degree of OP risk depends on? Amount of BMD acquired between ages 25-35
Signs and Symptoms of OP include? 1. Predisposition to FXs(especially of wrist,pelvis,and vertebrae-compression FXs) 2. Kyphosis(hunchback) 3. Loss of HT(height)
Diagnosis of OP depends on? 1. Pt Hx 2. Bone densitometry 3. DEXA(Dual-Energy Xray Absorptiometry)
OP treatment includes? 1. Sunlight AND 500mg Calcium with Vit D TID 2. Regular exercise 3. ERT(Estrogen Replacement Therapy-AKA:Hormone Replacement Therapy/HRT for postmenopausal women) 4. Use of calcitonin in extreme cases
Bone density testing is recommended for which groups of people? 1. Type 1 DM 2. Liver or Kidney Dse 3. Menopause 4. Over age 50
Paget's Disease is AKA? Osteitis deformans
What is the name for an idiopathic possibly genetic disease causing overproduction of abnormal bone tissue? Paget's Diease
Signs and Symptoms of Paget's Dse include? 1. Osteomalacia 2. Easy FXs 3. Deformities of the legs 4. Abnormal curvature in the vertebral column
What is a complication of Paget's Dse? Osteogenic Sarcoma(OS)-a primary bone malignancy
What is the most common benign bone tumor? Osteoma
True or False: An osteoma can be asymptomatic? TRUE
Under what circumstances is surgery performed to remove an osteoma? 1. Pain 2. Decreased mobility 3. Edema
What is an Osteogenic Sarcoma(OS)? A primary bone malignancy
OS is more common in what age group? Young adults(18-35yrs old)
A common sign of OS is? Easy FXs
Treatment of OS includes? 1. Chemotherapy 2. Surgical removal of tumor(poss. amputation of limb)
Malignant bone tumors are most commonly secondary tumors that have? Metastasized from another site
Secndary bone tumors cause? 1. Easy FXs 2. Extreme pain
What is the prognosis for a secondary bone malignancy? Poor
what is Arthritis? Inflammation of a joint(s)
Arthritis symptoms include? 1. Pain 2. Edema 3. Stiffness of joints(especially upon waking)
What joints are commonly affected by Artritis? 1. Lumbar vertebrae 2. Hips 3. Knees 4. Fingers
What type of arthritis is considered both autoimmune AND genetic? Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA)
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most serious form of arthritis and can cause? Contractures
Signs and Symptoms of RA include? 1. Pain 2. Edema 3. Erythema 4. Warmth 5. Stiffness of joints(especially upon waking)
Why can RA affect all of the joints? It is systemic
RA can cause scar tissue to fuse the ends of the bones causing? Immobility(crippling)
What are rheumatoid nodules? Enlargement of the joints caused by RA
How is RA treated? 1. ROM exercises 2. Rest 3. NSAIDs 4. Immunosuppressants(Enbrel,Orencia,Humira,Simponi)
Why would an Immunosuppressant be given to a patient with RA? Because RA is an autoimmune disease
Foods rich with what can reduce swelling, stiffness, and pain? Omega-3 fatty acids
What type of arthritis is the most common and can accompany aging? Osteoarthritis(OA)
What joints are typically affected by OA? 1. Fingers 2. Neck 3. Low back 4. Knees 5. Hips
Other than aging, what are 3 other causes of OA? 1. Chronic irritation or injury 2. Heredity 3. Obesity(Knees/Hips)
Identify the main symptoms of OA? 1. Pain 2. Stiffness of the joints
OA can cause Degenerative Joint Disease(DJD) which can result in? Irregular bone deposits called Spurs
True or False: There is a cure for OA? FALSE-No cure for OA
Tx of OA includes? 1. ROM exercises 2. Rest 3. Heat therapy 4. Vitamins C,D,E and Beta carotene 5. Green tea 6. SAIDs(cortisone)/NSAIDs(Ibuprofen) 7. Total Hip Replacement(THR) 8. Total Knee Replacement(TKR)
What form of arthritis usually affects the great toes and is caused by hyperuricemia which results in deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints and kidneys? Gout
The onset of gout is usually sudden and affects men over what age? Age 40
What are the two complications of gout? 1. Joint deformities 2. Kidney damage
Tx of gout includes? 1. Refrain from consuming organ meat,anchovies,sardines, and beer 2. Antigout medication
Compression of the median nerve in the wrist causes? Carpal Tunnel Syndrome(CTS)
In what gender/age group is CTS more common? Women ages 35-40
Signs and Symptoms of CTS include? Numbness and tingling in the hand progressing to pain that can radiate up the arm to the shoulder(especially at night)
What kind of injury is CTS? Repetitive Strain Injury(RSI)
How does CTS usually develop? When a wrist is kept in a flexed position for extended periods to perform repetitive tasks
High risk groups for CTS include? 1. Computer users 2. Beauticians 3. Dentists 4. Musicians 5. Those who use vibrating tools
Dx of CTS is confirmed by? 1. Hx of repetitive hand movements with a flexed wrist 2. EMG(Electromyography)
Identify the Tx options for CTS? 1. Proper wrist alignment 2. Avoidance of repetitive movement 3. Braces and splints 4. NSAIDs 5. Surgery
A Herniated Intervertebral Disk(HID)is AKA? 1. Slipped Disk 2. Ruptured Disk 3. Bulging Disk
Where do HID most frequently occur? Lower Lumbar region of the back
What is the typical cause of HID? Poor body mechanics
What is the primary complication of a HID? Pressure exerted on the spinal cord and/or Spinal nerve(s)causing weakness,numbness,tingling,and extreme pain
Identify the name of the nerve most commoly affected by a HID? Sciatic nerve
What is Sciatica? Irritation of a sciatic nerve
List the Tx options for a HID? 1. Bed rest on a firm mattress 2. Muscle relaxants 3. Narcotic analgesics 4. Heat application 5. Traction(Trx) 6. TENS(transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) 7. Surgery(Diskectomy and Vertebral fusion)
What is the name for a hereditary diease(of which there are several forms)causing muscle degeneration which totally disables the individual? Muscular Dystrophy(MD)
What is the most common and serious form of MD? Duchenne
Around what age does MD generally start appearing? Ages 3-5
True or False: Most individuals with MD live well into adulthood? FALSE-Most will die at an early age
Death is caused by the effect of MD on which muscles? Heart and Respiratory muscles
The Dx of MD is confirmed with? 1. EMG(Electromyography) 2. Muscle Bx
What are the Tx options for MD? 1. PT 2. OT 3. Orthopedic Assistance Devices(Wheelchair,Walkers,etc.)
What is the name for an idiopathic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder? Myasthenia gravis(MG)
MG occurs most often in what group of people? Women(Because it's autoimmune)
What disease is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles? Myasthenia gravis
Abnormal antibodies produced by the thymus has been linked to what disease? Myasthenia gravis
Muscles commonly involved in MG include? 1. Eye movement 2. Eyelid movement 3. Facial expressions 4. Chewing 5. Talking 6. Swallowing
Tx options for MG includes? 1. Thymectomy 2. Immunosuppressants
A protrusion of a structure through the tissue in which it is normally enclosed is called? Hernia
The protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm is known as? Hiatal Hernia(HH)
Another name for a Hiatal Hernia is? Diaphragmatic Hernia
What is a protrusion of the intestine through the umbilicus? Umbilical Hernia(UH)
A protrusion of the small intestine into the scrotum is referred to as? Inguinal Hernia(IH)
An incarcerated(strangulated)hernia can cause? Ischemia and/or necrosis to the tissue it surrounds
Tx of a hernia includes? 1. Abdominal supports 2. Hernioplasty
What is the name for an acute contagious skin disease caused by Staph or Strep especially in children? Impetigo
Impetigo is characterized by? 1. Erythema 2. Oozing vesicles 3. Pustules with a honey colored crust
How is Impetigo treated? 1. Wash with soap and water 2. Keep lesions dry(Astringents,ex:caladryl) 3. Topical Antibiotics(neosporin)
Name the Bacterial disease transmitted by the bite of deer tick? Lyme Disease
Signs and symptoms of Lyme Disease usually occurs how soon after exposure? Between 3-30 days after
Signs and Symptoms of Lyme Disease include? 1. "Bull's eye rash" 2. Flu like symptoms: a. Malaise b. Cephalalgia c. Chills d. Pyrexia e. Arthralgias f. Myalgias g. Lymphadenopathy
How is Lyme Disease treated? Antibiotics
Untreated Lyme Disease can cause permanent damage to the? 1. Heart 2. Joints 3. Nervous System
Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) causes? Herpetic Stomatitis (Inflammation of the oral cavity)
Herpetic Stomatitis is AKA? 1. Cold sores 2. Fever blisters
Where is herpetic stomatitis usually found? Near the Oral Labiae
The HSV 1 can remain dormant in the body for months but frequently becomes active when a person is? 1. Under stress 2. Immune system is weakend
What is the Tx method for HSV 1? Antiviral drugs(Abreva)
Tinea refers to? Fungal infections
Tinea corporis is AKA? Ringworm
What condition causes erythematous ringed shaped pruritic lesions on the skin? Tinea corporis
Tinea pedis is AKA? Athlete's Foot
Tinea pedis frequently attacks the skin between the toes causing? 1. Fissures 2. Pruritis 3. Pain
Tinea cruris is AKA? Jock itch
Tinea cruris causes? Erythematous ring-like areas with vesicles
Areas of the body susceptible to tinea are usually? Warm,dark, and moist environments
What are the Tx options for tinea? 1. Keeping susceptible areas dry 2. Topical antifungal medications
Pediculosis is AKA? Lice
Where can pediculosis infest? 1. Head 2. Pubic area(crabs) 3. Body
Head lice are common among what group of people? Children
How is head lice transmitted? 1. Direct contact 2. Fomites such as combs,scarves,hats,and bed linens
What is the main symptom of pediculosis? Pruritis(Itching)
Pediculosis white eggs(nits) can be found located on what part of the hair? Hair shaft
Tx methods for pediculosis include? 1. Medicated shampoo 2. Use of a fine toothed comb 3. Washing clothes in hot water(>131 degrees)AND Machine drying 4. Leave the house for 55 hrs to allow lice to die
Lice are beoming resistant to which form of treatment? Medicated shampoo
What is the name for a contagious skin infestation caused by the "itch mite"? Scabies
Signs and symptoms of scabies include? 1. Vesicles 2. Pustules 3. Intense pruritis
How are scabies transmitted? By skin-to-skin contact
Tx of scabies involves? 1. Scrubbing with medicated soaps and shampoos in hot baths 2. Washing clothes in hot water(>131 degrees)AND Machine drying
What is a noncontagious inflammation of the skin caused by caused by an allergic response? Allergic Contact Dermatitis(ACD)
Common allergies include? 1. Plants (poison ivy/poison oak) 2. Chemicals found in clothing dyes,soaps,and perfumes 3. Metals such as nickel found in costume jewelry
Signs and Symptoms of ACD are? 1. Erythema 2. Vesicles 3. Pruritis
What are treatment options of ACD? 1. Removal of the allergen 2. Topical SAIDs(Hydrocortisone) 3. Antihistamines(Benadryl) 4. Antipruritic medications(Caladryl)
Atopic Dermatitis is AKA? Eczema
What is Eczema? An idiopathic skin disorder causing erythematous,dry,and crusted patches on the skin
AD(Atopic Dermatitis)usually affects those with what conditions? 1. Allergies 2. Asthma
Eczema outbreaks will disappear in half of all children effected by what age frame? Adolescence
The Tx of Atopic Dermatitis(AD)includes? Use of SAIDs
A nevus is AKA? A mole
What is the name of a benign skin lesion that can become malignant? Nevus(mole)
Signs and Symtoms that indicate possible change of a nevus to a malignant lesion includes? 1. Changes in the size or shape 2. Pruritis 3. Soreness 4. Discharge 5. Darkening
Identify the ABCDEs of Nevi(moles)? 1. Asymmetry -one half doesn't match the other 2. Border or edges are ragged,blurred,or irregular 3. Color is not the same throughout 4. Diameter is larger than the eraser of a pencil 5. Elevaed or raised from the skin
Treatment of a suspect nevus involves? 1. Surgical removal/cryosurgery(freezing to destroy the tissue)
Basal cell carcinoma is what? The most common skin cancer which is slow growing and usually nonmetastasizing
BCC usually develops where on? Face and neck of light skinned men who are overexposed to UV light(by sun or tanning beds)
Treatment of BCC involves? 1. Surgical removal of the tumor 2. Radiation therapy 3. Chemotherapy
Squamos Cell Carcinoma(SCC) is a more serious skin lesion because? It metastasizes through the lymph vessels
Where does SCC usually develop? 1. Face 2. Ears 3. Neck 4. Lips 5. Back of hands
Which group of people are mostly affected by SCC? Light skinned men who are over exposed to UV light
Tx options for SCC include? 1. Surgical removal of tumor 2. Radiation therapy 3. Chemotherapy
Why is Malignant(metastatic)Melanoma(MM)the most serious form of skin cancer? Early Metastasis
MM can develop from a nevus and is associated with? Overexposure to UV light in Caucasians
Tx of Malignant Melanoma involves? 1. Surgical removal of tumor 2. Surgical removal of lymph nodes surrounding the tumor
Some women have a genetic predisposition that makes them how many more times as likely to develop MM? 4 times as likely
Clogging of the sebaceous glands causes? Acne vulgaris(AV)
What are the characteristics of AV? 1. Comedones(whiteheads and blackheads) 2. Pustules(pus-filled papules)which indicate inflammatory acne
Treatment of acne vulgaris includes? 1. Benzoyl peroxide 2. Stridex 3. Keeping hands away from the face 4. Gentle cleaning of the skin twice a day
What skin condition is an idiopathic cyclic progressive inflammatory skin disease that causes facial erythema,edema,pustules,papules,and pain? Rosacea
How is Rosacea treated? 1. Avoidance of triggers(sunlight,stress,wind,temp extremes,skin care products) 2. Topical Vitamin A(Retinol) 3. Oracea
An idiopathic autoimmune chronic skin disease with a hereditary basis of which there is no cure is known as? Psoriasis
Describe the appearance of psoriasis lesions? Erythematous patches with white or silvery scales
Where do psoriasis lesions primarily form? 1. Elbows 2. Knees
What other areas of the body can be affected by psoriasis? 1. Trunk 2. Arms 3. Legs 4. Scalp
What factors can exacerbate psoriasis? 1. Stress 2. Changes in climate 3. NSAIDs 4. Injuries to the skin 5. Infections
How is psoriasis treated? 1. Coal-tar medications(Tegrin,Desonex) 2. SAIDs 3. UV light therapy
Onset and exacerbation of psoriasis has been linked to drinking what? Non-light beer
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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