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Chapter 10/11 Vocab

Wilmot Proviso divided Congress along regional lines; meant that California and the territories of Utah and New Mexico would be closed to slavery forever.
Secession the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
Compromise of 1850 presented by Clay; a series of resolutions; hoped to settle “all questions in controversy between the free and slave states, growing out of the subject of Slavery;” tried to please both the North and the South.
Popular Sovereignty: the right of residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery.
Stephen A. Douglas: after Clay left Washington, Douglas took the pro-compromises reins; presented the ideas individually; was supported by Taylor’s successor (Fillmore); he found the key to passing the entire compromise
Millard Fillmore: Taylor’s successor; supported the Compromise of 1850; embraced the compromise as a “final settlement.”
Fugitive Slave Act: a component of the Compromise; alleged fugitives were not entitled to a trial by jury; fugitives could not testify on their own behalf
Personal Liberty Laws: forbade the imprisonment of runaway slaves and guaranteed that they would have jury trials
Harriet Tubman: one of the most famous conductors; helped over 300 slaves; escaped slavery after her owner died
Harriet Beecher Stowe: ardent abolitionist; published Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: instant best seller; delivered the message that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle; caused increase protest on the Fugitive Slave Act; the plot was melodramatic and many of its characters were stereotypes
Kansas-Nebraska Act: became a law in May 1854; introduced by Douglas, a bill in Congress to divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south; repealed the Missouri Compromise and established popular sovereignty for both territories
John Brown an abolitionist described by one historian as “a man made of the stuff of saints;” believed that God had called on him to fight slavery; was set on revenge because of the proslavery posse in Lawrence that had killed five men
Bleeding Kansas: triggered by the “Pottawatomie Massacre;” a new name for the territory because of all the incidents that killed some 200 people; became a violent battlefield in a civil war
Franklin Pierce: Democratic candidate that won the election in 1852
Nativism: the favoring of native-born Americans over immigrants
Know-Nothing Party using secret handshakes and passwords, members were told to answer questions about their activities by saying, “I know nothing;” when nativists formed the American Party in 1854, it soon became better known as this party; anti-immigration & anti-Catholic
Free-Soil Party: opposed the extension of slavery into the territories; nominated former Democratic president Martin Van Buren in 1848; pro-labor
Republican Party: established in 1854; opposed expansion of slavery into territories
Horace Greeley founded the Republican Party
John C. Frémont: chosen as the candidate for the Republican Party in 1856; the framed “Pathfinder” who had mapped the Oregon Trail and led U.S. troops into California during the war with Mexico
James Buchanan: was chosen to be the Democratic candidate; from Pennsylvania
Dred Scott: a slave from Missouri; tried to gain freedom by a court case
Roger B. Taney: Supreme Court Chief Justice; his decision caused heated sectional differences
Abraham Lincoln: 16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth
Freeport Doctrine: Douglas’s response to Lincoln’s question of could the settlers of a territory vote to exclude slavery before the territory became a state?
Harpers Ferry: first president of the Republic of Texas, and applied to US for annexation of Texas, but got denied by Jackson and Van Buren
Confederacy: a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
Jefferson Davis: an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Fort Sumter: a fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, that was held by federal troops but claimed by a seceded state; cut off from vital supplies and reinforcements by southern control of the harbor
David G. Farragut: the first senior officer of the U.S. Navy during the Civil War; he was the first rear admiral, vice admiral, and full admiral of the Navy (he fought for the Union; captured New Orleans for the Union in April 1862
Fort Pillow: confederate troops killed over 200 African American soldiers after they surrendered
Income Tax: taxed a specified percentage of an individuals income (including a 10% tax in-kind of farm produce)
Clara Barton: was a union nurse who often cared for the sick and the wounded. At Antietam she was described as the "Angel on the Battlefield"
Andersonville: had poor hygiene and little food. Sickness was rampant and often people would kill each other for food. In Andersonville, close to 13,000 POWs would die.
Conscription: a draft that would force certain members of the population to serve in the army
Created by: 3aag0