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Amer. Hist. Unit 9

American History Ch. 24 & 25 Vocab and People

QuestionAnswer
Joseph Stalin last name means "man of steel" took control of Russia and Lenin died and focused on creating a model communist state.
totalitarian types of government system in which the government exercises complete control over its citizens
fascism a political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed by a powerful dictator
Nazism a political philosophy - based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansion - that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Adolph Hitler Was the Nazi party leader. He then became chancellor (prime minister) of Germany. Once in power he established the Third Reich, or Third German Empire
isolationism opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries
Neutrality Acts series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent U.S. arms sales and loans to nations at war
Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of Britain in May of 1940. He was Britain's greatest weapon as the nation faced the Nazis. He united Britain during the war.
appeasement the granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace
nonaggression pact an agreement in which two nations promise not to go to war with each other
blitzkrieg from the German word meaning "lightning war," a sudden massive attache wit combined air and ground forces, intended to achieve a quick victory
Fall of France 1940 when German forces trapped almost 400,000 British and French soldiers as they tried to flee. A few days later, Italy entered the war on Germany's side and invaded France from the South as the Germans invaded from the North.
Battle of Britain Summer of 1940 the Germans began regular bombings of Britain's airfields & aircrafts. In August German bombers pounded London every night for 2 solid months-trying to disrupt production and break civilian morale.
Axis Powers the group of nations - including Germany, Italy, and Japan - that opposed the Allies in World War II
Lend-Lease Act a law passed in 1941, that allowed the United States to ship arms and other supplies, without immediate payment, to nations fighting the Axis powers
Atlantic Charter a 1941 declaration of principles in which the United States and Great Britain set forth their goals in opposing the Axis powers
Allies the group of nations - including Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States - that opposed the Axis powers
Hideki Tojo chief of staff of Japan's Kwantung Army, launched the invasion into China
Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 - for an hour and a half, 180 Japanese dive-bombers blasted targets on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, the largest U.S. naval base in the pacific
Rationing establishing fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military
War Production Board as agency established during World War II to coordinate the production of military supplies by U.S. industries
Internment Camps a camp for prisoners of war
Nisei a son or daughter of Japanese immigrants who is born and educated in America and especially in the United States
Tuskegee Airmen The Tuskegee Airman were an elite group of African-American pilots in the 1940s. They were pioneers in equality and integration of the Armed Forces. The term "Tuskegee Airmen" refers to all who were involved in the Army Air Corps program
Battle of the Atlantic After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hitler ordered submarine raids against ships along America's east coast. The German aim in the Battle of the Atlantic was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain and the Soviet Union
Battle of Stalingrad a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad. The Soviet Union eventually one, but it is among the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare
North African Front Commanded by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in November 1942, some 107,000 Allied troops landed in North Africa. After months of heavy fighting, the last of the Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943.
Italian Campaign Allied invasion of Italy, started with the capture of Sicily in the summer of 1943. The Italian government forced dictator, Benito Mussolini to resign. He was later arrested an told "he was the most hated man in Italy." End of the war for Italy.
D-Day June 6, 1944; invasion of 3 million Allied forces in Normandy in northern France. It was the largest land-sea-air operation in army history.
Battle of the Bulge a month long battle of World War II, in which the Allies succeeded in turning back the last major German offensive on the war
V-E Day a name given the May 8, 1945, "Victory in Europe Day" on which General Eisenhower's acceptance of unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of World War II in Europe
Douglas MacArthur commander of Allied forces during the time of the Japanese invasion in December 1941.
Doolittle's Raid on Tokyo April 18, 1942 Colonel James Doolittle led 16 bombers in an attack on Tokyo; pulling off a Pearl Harbor-style raid on Tokyo
Battle of the Coral Sea Allied forces (American & Australian) in May 1942 who succeeded in stopping the Japanese from invading Australia. First time since Pearl Harbor that a Japanese invasion had been stopped and turned back
Battle of Midway a World War II battle that took place in early June 1942. The Allies decimated the Japanese fleet at Midway, an island lying northwest of Hawaii. The Allies then took the offensive in the Pacific and began to move closer to Japan
Kamikaze involving or engaging in the deliberate crashing of a bomb-filled airplane into a military target
Battles of Iwo Jima & Okinawa a small island taken over by Allied troops. This was critical to the U.S. as a base that they could load heavy bombers that could possible reach japan
Manhattan Project The U.S. program to develop an atomic bomb for use in World War II
Yalta Conference February 1945, 8 days where the BIG Three leaders discussed the fate of Germany and the postwar world. Germany was eventually divided into 4 zones, American, British, Soviets and French.