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Ch.28 Persian Wars
History Alive! The Ancient World ©2004 TCI
|What is the area where the Persian empire started called today?
|What are allies?
|States that agree to help each other against a common enemy.
|King Darius divided the Persian Empire into provinces. How many and what were they called?
|What marked the beginning of the Greek-Persian Wars, and when was it?
|The Ionian Revolt, in 499 B.C.E.
|What did the Persians force the Ionians to do? Name two things.
|Pay tributes and serve in the army.
|Who did the Ionians ask for help against the Persians?
|Mainland Greece (Athens responded)
|What did the Persians do to punish the Ionians after defeating them?
|They destroyed the city of Miletus and sold some people into slavery.
|What presents did King Darius request from mainland Greece, and why?
|Greek earth and water, to represent Greeks' acceptance of Persian Rule.
|How did the Greeks respond to King Darius' request for presents?
|They threw the King's messengers into pits and wells (to get their own Greek earth and water).
|What kind of military force did King Darius send to Greece?
|Foot soldiers and cavalry.
|What is a cavalry?
|Military force mounted on horseback.
|What was the first major battle of the Greek-Persian Wars, and when was it fought?
|The Battle of Marathon, in 490 B.C.E.
|What Greek army fought the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, and who led them?
|The Athenians, led by General Miltiades
|Who was Pheidippides?
|An Athenian runner who ran for two days and two nights to ask Spartans to help defend against King Darius' army.
|Why didn't the Spartans help at the Battle of Marathon?
|They were celebrating a religious festival and said they couldn't leave Sparta until the next full moon.
|Who won the Battle of Marathon?
|Who succeeded Darius as King of the Persian Empire?
|His son, King Xerxes
|How many soldiers were in King Xerxes' army?
|What is the Hellespont?
|A long, narrow body of water between Europe and Asia.
|How did Xerxes' army cross the Hellespont?
|By walking over two bridges made by roping hundreds of boats together.
|What was Xerxes' first major battle against the Greeks, and when was it fought?
|The Battle of Thermopylae, in 480 B.C.E.
|What Greek army fought against the Persians at Thermopylae, and who led them?
|The Spartans, led by King Leonidas
|Describe the geographical characteristics of Thermopylae.
|It's a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea.
|Who won the Battle of Thermopylae?
|What were the two main reasons the Persians beat the Spartans at Thermopylae?
|A traitor showed them a secret path through the mountains; and they had a LOT more soldiers.
|How many Spartan soldiers went to Thermopylae? How many stayed to the end?
|6,0000-7,000, then 300
|Why did Spartan soldiers leave the battle at Thermopylae?
|King Leonidas knew his army couldn't defeat the Persians so he ordered most of his troops to escape.
|What happened to the Spartan soldiers who stayed at Thermopylae?
|They fought bravely with weapons and their bare hands until they were all killed.
|Where did the Persian army go after the battle at Thermopylae?
|What happened when Xerxes' army went to Athens?
|They burned it to the ground within two weeks.
|Where was the major naval battle of the Persian Wars?
|Who led the Greek navy at Salamis?
|Describe the geographical characteristics of Salamis.
|It's on a narrow channel of water between the Greek islands and mainland.
|Why did Themistocles want to fight the Persian navy at Salamis?
|Because the narrow waterway would make it difficult for the Persians to maneuver their ships.
|How did Themistocles get the Persian navy to enter the narrow channel of water at Salamis?
|He sent a secret message to Xerxes that he wanted to change sides, and that half the Greek sailors would surrender.
|What did the Greek navy do after surrounding the Persian ships at Salamis?
|They rammed them and crushed their hulls.
|How many ships did the Persians lose at Salamis?
|How many ships did the Greeks lose at Salamis?
|Who won the Battle at Salamis?
|Where did the Persians go after the Battle at Salamis?
|Xerxes retreated, but left half of his army in Greece.
|What was the final major battle of the Persian wars?
|The Battle of Plataea, in 479 B.C.E.
|How long did the Greek-Persian Wars last?