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REHS General

Disease Agents Prevention and Control

Botulism Agent Clostridium botulinum and C. parabotulinum that produce toxin Staphylococcus Agent
Clostriduim perfringins agent Clostridium perfringens (C. welchi), a sporeformer (some spores are heat resistant)
Bacillus cereus- diarrhea agentl Bacillus cereus, toxin heat labile
Bacillus cereus- vomiting type Agent Bacillus cereus, toxin heat stable
Salmonellosis Agent Salmonella typhimarium, S. newport, S. enteritidis, S. Montevideo
Typhoid fever Agent typhoid bacillus, Salmonella typhosa
Shigellosis Agent Shigella (flexneri, sonnei, boydii, dysentariae
Cholera Agent Vibrio cholera, Vibrio comma
Campylobacter Agent Campylobacter jejuni
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Agent Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Diarrhea enteropathogenic (Traveler's diarrhea) Agent Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli invasive and enterotoxigenic strains
Yersiniosis Agent Yersinia entercolitica, Yersina pseudotuberculosis
Listeriosis Agent Listeria monocytogenes
Vibrio vulnificus Agent Vibrio vulnificus
Botulism Res and Veh soil, veggies, mud, food; improperly processed canned and bottled foods
Staphylococcus Res and Veh skin, mucus, pus; contaminated pastries, cooked or processed meats, poultry, salads
Clostridium perfringins Res and Veh soil, vermin, gastri tract; inadequate heating and temp abused foods
Bacillus cereus- Diarrheal Res and Veh spores; inadequately refrigerated cooling and reheating
Bacillus cereus vomiting Res and Veh spores; boiled and fried rice
Salmonellosis Res and Veh poultry, eggs, turtles; sliced meats, salads, raw foods, equip, milk, eggs
Typhoid fever Res and Veh feces and urine of carrier; contaminated water, milk, shellfish
Shigellosis Res and Veh feces of carriesr; comtaminated water, foods, person to person
Cholera Res and Veh feces, vomit, carriers; raw foods, flies, shellfish
Campy Res and Veh chickens, swine, raw milk; undercooked meat, raw milk
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Res and Veh marine fish, shellfish, salt water, brackish and fresh water; raw seafoods, cross contamination
Diarrhea (Traveler's diarrhea) Res and Veh infected persons; food water, fomites contaminated with feces
Yersiniosis Res and Veh wild and domestic animals, birds; raw milk, seafoods, infected food workers
Listeriosis Res and Veh goats, cattle, fowl; raw milk, contaminated foods
Vibrio vulnificus Res and Veh oysters, sea water; raw oysters
Botulism symptoms and incubation GI pain, diarrhea, contipation, difficulty swallowing, difficulty breathing; 2 hr to 8 days- usually 12-36
Staphylococcus symptoms and incubation N, V, D, C, explosive; 1-6hr or longer avg 2-4 hour
Clostriduim perfringins symptoms and incubation sudden abd. Pain, then D and N; 8-22 usually 10-12
Bacillus cereus- diarrhea a symptoms and incubation D, C, V sometimes; 6-16 hr
Bacillus cereus- vomiting type symptoms and incubation V, D, N sometimes; 1-6 hr
Salmonellosis symptoms and incubation Abd Pain, D (several days), Chill, F, V, N; 6-48 usually 12-24
Typhoid fever symptoms and incubation infection, fever, rose spots on trunk, D; avg 14 days usually 7-21
Shigellosis symptoms and incubation Acute D, F, blood and mucus in stools; 1-7 days; usually less than 4 days
Cholera symptoms and incubation D, rice water stools, V, Thirst, pain, coma; hours-5 days usually 3 days
Campylobacter symptoms and incubation Watery D, pain, F, Ch, N, V, blood in stool; 1-10 days 2 to 5 days average
Vibrio parahaemolyticus symptoms and incubation N, HA, Ch, F, V, Cramps, Wat Diarrhea; 2-48 hours, usually 12-24 hours
Diarrhea enteropathogenic (Traveler's diarrhea) symptoms and incubation F, Bloody D, Watery D, cramps, dehydration; 12 to 72 hours
Yersiniosis symptoms and incubation D, Cramps, F, HA, skin rash, psuedo-appendicitis; 3-7 days usually 2-3 days
Listeriosis symptoms and incubation F, HA, N, V, Meningeal symptoms; few days to 3 weeks
Vibrio vulnificus symptoms and incubation F, Chills, V, N, D; 16 hours
Botulism Prevention boil home canned nonacid food five min; thoroughly cook foods
Staphylococcus Prevention proper cooling, personal hygiene and sanitation
Clostriduim perfringins Prevention cook foods, cool quickly, reheat thoroughly- no temp abuse
Bacillus cereus- diarrhea a Prevention cool rapidly, reheat rapidly
Bacillus cereus- vomiting type Prevention cool rapidly, reheat rapidly some spores may survive
Salmonellosis Prevention Cross Contam, cook all the way, pets, don't eat raw eggs
Typhoid fever Prevention protect water, isolate patients
Shigellosis Prevention food water, sewage sanitation, pasteurize milk, personal hygiene
Cholera Prevention quarantine
Campylobacter Prevention thoroughly cook chicken and pork
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Prevention cook all seafood
Diarrhea enteropathogenic (Traveler's diarrhea) Prevention hygiene
Yersiniosis Prevention safe disposal of all feces- organisms grow at 40
Listeriosis Prevention avoid contact with persons and aborted animal fetuses, raw milk grows 37 to 113
Vibrio vulnificus Prevention cook all seafood
What are the 5 viruses that cause waterborne/foodborne disease? Hep A, Viral gastroenteritis- Norwalk virus, Giardiasis, Cryptospordiosis, Trickinosis
Hepatitis A Resevoir and Vehicle Humans, Fecal Oral
viral gastroenteritis or Norwalk virus Resevoir and Vehicle Humans, Fecal Oral
Giardiasis Resevoir and Vehicle Drinking water, Fecal Oral
Cryptospordiosis Resevoir and Vehicle Drinking water, Fecal Oral
Trickinosis Resevoir and Vehicle wild animals, Infected Meat
Hepatitis A symptoms and incubation D, dark urine, flu like symptoms; 2 weeks to 3 months
viral gastroenteritis or Norwalk virus symptoms and incubation N, V, Cramp, D, Fever D more in Adults, V more in Children; Food or water contaminated with fecal matter
Giardiasis symptoms and incubation D, Cramps, Gas; 6-22 days, Average 9
Cryptospordiosis symptoms and incubation Watery D, Cramps; weeks to months
Trickinosis symptoms and incubation N, V, D, pain, swelling of face, difficulty swallowing; 2-28 days, usually 9
Hepatitis A Prevention BHC, don't work when sick
viral gastroenteritis or Norwalk virus Prevention BHC, don't work when sick
Giardiasis Prevention boil water, filter
Cryptospordiosis Prevention avoid untreated water, ice, RTE when in poor hygiene areas
Trickinosis Prevention cook wild meat
Optimal Temp for Growth Salmonella 99F
Optimal Temp for Growth Staph aureus 99F
Optimal Temp for Growth Clostridium perfrengens 115F
Optimal Temp for Growth enterococci
Freeze fish at what temp for how long to aviod illness -4F for 3 to 5 days
Clostridium perfringens Type A usually produces toxin in the intestines
life cycle of C. perfringens spore in food then germinate to vegetative cell then under anarobic warm conditions produce toxin
staph aureus presence and growth found in skin infections, multibly under temp conditions and produse enterotoxins resistant to heat
C. Botulinum in what foods improperly canned low acid food and improperly cooled food produces a neurotoxin
onchocerciasis river blindness- nematode- onchocerca vulvulus
enterotoxin protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines
endotoxin a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and to be released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall
exotoxin a toxin that is released by bacteria into the environment
life expectancy increases due to personal life styles and control of pollution
major process for prevention of respiratory disease of susceptible persons is education
recent largest contributor of rabies skunks
preventino of death from particular disease does or does not change in direct proportion to its decreased mortality it does not increase in direct proportion
communicable diseases controlled through (3) source, mode of transmission and susceptibility
is ph a major factor in soil pathogen survival? nope
survival of ascaris ova up to 7 years on soil and veggies
coliforms survival on soil 38+ days
crypto oocyst survival in soil 60-180 days
no threshold increase dose causes increase effect
urine is usually sterile except when from someone with urinary schistomiasis, typhoid, leptospirosis
i/4 of the worlds population has one of these 4 gastroenteritis, malaria, river blindness (onchocerciasis) or schistosomiasis
rats excrement and urine can spread E. coli, lepto (Weil's), salmonella, staph and yersiniosis
sources of giardia dog, beavers, muskrats, people are sources
legionella pneumophila originates in surface water, adjacent soils, cooling towers, hospital hot water systems, humidifiers
principal cause of waterborne disease sewage contamination
lymphocytic choriomeningitis carriers rodents
tularemia carriers infected rodents, rabbits, muskrats, deerflies, ticks, and contaminated water
rabies carriers dogs, foxes, cats, squirrels, cattle, horses, swine, goats, wolves, boats, skinks, many more
control of animal bitten by a rabid animal isolation for 10 days
rabies in bats and prevention vampire bat (desmodus rotundus)screens and "building them out"
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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