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Chapter 14/15

Chapter 14/15: The Coming of War & World War II

1.totalitarianism a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people.
2.anti-Semitic prejudice and discrimination against Jewish people
3.Spanish Civil War Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco rebelled against the democratic Republican government of Spain
4.appeasement policy of granting concessions in order to keep the peace
5.Anschluss union of Germany and Austria in 1933
6.Munich Pact agreement made between Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France in 1938 that sacrificed the Sudetenland to preserve peace
7.blitzkrieg "lightning war" that emphasized the use of speed and firepower to penetrate deep into the enemy's territory
8.Axis Powers group of countries led by Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought the Allies in World War II
9.Allies group of countries led by Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union that fought the Axis Powers in World War II
10.Neutrality Act of 1939 act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships
11.Tripartite Pact agreement that created an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II
12.Lend-Lease Act act passed in 1941 that allowed President Roosevelt to sell or lend war supplies to any country whose defense he considered vital to the safety of the United States
13.Atlantic Charter a joint declaration made in August 1941 by Great Britain and the United States, during World War II, that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of general security
14.Pearl Harbor American military base attacked by the Japanese on December 7,1941
15.Women's Army Corps (WAC) U.S. Army group established during World War II so that women could serve in noncombat roles
16.Bataan Death March during World War II, the forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war under brutal conditions by the Japanese military
17.Battle of Coral Sea World War II battle that took place between Japanese and American aircraft carriers
18.unconditional surrender giving up completely without any concessions
19.Saturation bombing tactic of dropping massive amounts of bombs in order to inflict maximum damage
20.Strategic bombing tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets
21.Tuskegee Airmen African American squadron that escorted bombers in the air war over Europe during World War II
22.Battle of Midway turning point of World War II in the Pacific, in which the Japanese advance was stopped
23.Executive Order 8802 World War II measure that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded by the government
24.bracero program plan that brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms
25.internment temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group
26.Korematsu V. United States The Supreme Court's decision ruled that the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II did not violate the Constitution
27.442nd Regimental Combat Team group that fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history
28.rationing government-controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime
29.Office of War Information (OWI) government agency that encouraged support of the war effort during World War II
30.D-Day June 6,1944, the day Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy,France
31.Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
32.island hopping World War II strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others
33.Kamikaze Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during World War II
34.Manhattan Project code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb
35.holocaust name now used to describe the systematic murder of Jews by the Nazis
36.anti-Semitism prejudice and discrimination against Jewish people
37.Nuremberg Laws laws enacted by Hitler that denied German citizenship to Jews
38.kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass" organized attacks on Jewish communities in Germany on November 9,1938
39.genocide willful annihilation of a racial,political, or cultural group
40.concentration camp camps used by the Nazis to imprison "undesirable" members of society
41.death camp Nazi camp designed for the extermination of prisoners
42.War Refugee Board U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews
43.Yalta Conference 1945 strategy meeting between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
44.Superpower powerful country that plays a dominant economic, political, and military role in the world
45.General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) international agreement first signed in 1947 aimed at lowering trade barriers
46.United Nations (UN) organization founded in 1945 to promote peace
47.Universal Declaration of Human Rights document issued by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms
48.Geneva Convention international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
49.Nuremberg Trials trials in which Nazi leaders were charged with war crimes
Created by: Mixu88