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Civics Test 20 & 21


Plessy v. Ferguson Court allowed separate-but-equal doctrine
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954, reversed Plessy v. Ferguson; Court struck down the laws of 4 States requiring or allowing separate public schools for white and African American students. S.Court unanimously held that segregation by race is unconstitutional.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 1978;Allan Bakke,white male,denied admission to at Davis.16/100 seats in each year's entering class for nonwhite students.Bakke sued,charging univ. w/reverse discrimination, & so, a violation of the 14th a.m.'s EqualProtectionClause.He won 5-4
heterogeneous of another or different race, family, or kind; composed of a mix of elements
immigrant those people legally admitted as permanent residents of a country
reservations public lands set aside by a government for use by Native American tribes
refugees one who seeks protection(refuge) from war, persecution, or some other danger
assimilation the process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
segregation the separation of one group from another
Jim Crow laws laws that separate people on the basis of race
separate-but-equal doctrine constitutional basis for laws that separate one group from another on the basis of race
integration the process of bringing a group into the mainstream of society
de jure segregation segregation by law, with legal sanction
de facto segregation segregation even if no law requires it, e.g. housing patterns
affirmative action policy that requires that most employers take positive steps (affirmative action) to remedy the effects of past discriminations
quotas a rule requiring certain numbers of jobs or promotions for members of certain groups
reverse discrimination discrimination against the majority group
citizen one who owes allegiance to the U.S. and is entitled to its protection
jus soli the law of soil, which determines citizenship based on where a person is born
jus sanguinis the law of blood, which determines citizenship based on one's parents' citizenship
naturalization legal process by which a person becomes a citizen of another county at some time after birth
alien a citizen or national of a foreign state living in this country
expatriation legal process by which a loss of citizenship occurs
denaturalization process by which naturalized citizens may involuntarily lose their citizenship; can only occur by court order and after it has been shown that the person became a citizen by fraud or deception
deportation a legal process in which aliens are legally required to leave the U.S.
wards until 1924, Native Americans born to tribal members living on reservations; weren't citizens, but people under legal guardianship of the government
Created by: johndude
Popular American Government sets




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