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Gross Anatamy I

Exam 4

QuestionAnswer
Stimulus that produces an involuntary response Reflex
Stimulus can be from what? External Surface(Somatic) or Viscera(Visceral)
Series of anatomical parts through which the reflex impulse travels; i.e., the route of the reflex impulse Reflex Arc
What is the basic route of the reflex impulse? sensory neuron -> motor neuron -> effector organ -> involuntary response
What does the gray matter of the spinal cord consist of? anterior horn, lateral horn and posterior horn
Contains cell bodies of GSE motor neurons and innervates what? anterior horn; skeletal muscle
Contains preganglionic GVE cell bodies of ANS lateral horn
Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are present where? T1-L2 or L3 spinal cord levels
Cell bodies of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons are present where? S2-S4 spinal cord levels
GVE motor function innervates what? smooth muscles, cardiac muscle or glands
Contains cell bodies of GSA and GVA sensory function posterior horn
What are the 2 roots of a spinal nerve? dorsal root with dorsal root ganglion and ventral root
The dorsal root with dorsal root ganglion contains what types of fibers? sensory fibers entering the spinal cord
The ventral root contains what types of fibers? motor fibers leaving the spinal cord
What are the 2 spinal reflex arcs? somatic reflex arcs and visceral reflex arc
Which reflex arc produces contractions of skeletal muscle? Somatic Reflex Arc
What are the 3 somatic reflex arcs? Stretch Reflex, Flexor Reflex, and Crossed-Extensor Reflex
2 neuron, monosynaptic reflex Stretch Reflex
3 neuron polysynaptic reflex Flexor Reflex and Crossed-Extensor Reflex
Stretching of a skeletal muscles is a stimulus of what reflex? What is this stimulus also called? Stretch Reflex; myotatic stimulus
Myotasis means what? muscles stretching
Knee jerk reflex is what kind of reflex? Stretch Reflex
Type of reflex where the cell body of afferent sensory neuron is in a dorsal root ganglion Stretch Reflex
Type of reflex where the receptor is in a neuromuscular spindle Stretch Reflex
Type of reflex where the efferent motor neuron cell body is in the anterior horn Stretch Reflex
Reflex where the stimulus is usually suuperficial Flexor Reflex
Type of Reflex where it is a protective withdrawal through the contraction of flexor muscles Flexor Reflex
Removal of finger from hot object Flexor Reflex
Afferent sensory neuron synapses in posterior horn with cell body of interneuron. Interneuron synapses in anterior horn with efferent motor neuron Flexor Reflex
Stimulus causes contraction of extensor muscles on opposite side of body Crossed-Extensor Reflex
Afferent sensory neuron synapses in posterior horn with cell body of interneuron. Interneuron axon crosses gray commissure to OPPOSITE side and synapses in anterior horn of opposite side. Crossed-Extensor Reflex
The efferent motor neuron of this reflex goes to the extensor muscle and maintains balance and supports weight Crossed-Extensor Reflex
Reflex in which center of the reflex arc lies in the spinal cord Spinal Cord Reflex
Any reflex produced by stimulating a deep structure (Tendon or Bone) Deep Reflex
Deep reflex in which a tendon is stimulated Tendon Reflex
A reflex controlled by a single segment of the cord (L2) Intrasegmental(unisegmented) Reflex
A reflex controlled by more than one segment of the cord (L2-L4) Intersegmental(multisegmental) Reflex
Stimulation on one side of the body caused a response on the opposite side Crossed(contralateral) Reflex
Response occurs on the same side of body as the stimulus Ipsilateral Reflex
Response to stimulus is done by extensor muscles Extensor Reflex
Response to stimulus is done by flexor muscles Flexor Reflex
2 ascending afferent tracts spinothalamic tract and posterior white column - medial lemniscal system
Which ascending afferent tract is for pain, temperature, pressure and crude touch spinothalamic tract
Which ascending afferent tract is for discriminating touch and proprioception posterior white column - medial lemniscal system
Ascending afferent sensory tracts conducts impulses from where to where? How many neurons? periphery to the cerebral cortex; 3 neuron relay
In ascending afferent sensory tracts, sensory neuron 1 conducts impulses from where to where? periphery to spinal cord(spinalthalmic tract); periphery to brainstem(medial lemniscal tract)
In ascending afferent sensory tracts, sensory neuron 2 conducts impulses from where to where? spinal cord to thalamus(spinalthalmic tract); brainstem to thalamus(medial lemniscal tract)
In ascending afferent sensory tracts, sensory neuron 3 conducts impulses from where to where? thalamus to the general sensory area of the cerebral cortex(both tracts)
Crude awareness of sensations occurs when impulses reach what? Thalamus
Discriminating awareness occurs when impulses reach what? Cerebral Cortex
Decussate means what? to cross
What acts as a sensory filter? Thalamus
When one concentrates on sensory data the impulse will go to where? General sensory area of the cerebral cortex
Which sensory neurons axons mostly decussate(cross)? sensory neuron 2 axons
Why do most sensory neuron 2 axons cross? So that one side of the brain registers mainly sensations from the Opposite side of the body
"Principle of Divergence" applies to what? sensory impulse conduction
T/F: Each sensory neuron synapses with more than one neuron, impulses diverge and may activate many effectors True (Principles of Divergence)
What are the 2 descending (efferent) pathways from the brain? Extrapyramidal Tracts and Pyramidal Tract
Whats another name of a pyramidal tract? Corticospinal Tract
What are the 2 general principles about descending efferent motor tracts to skeletal muscles? Principle of the Common Path and Principle of Convergence
Motor neurons in the anterior gray horns of spinal cord are the FINAL common path for impulses to skeletal muscles Principle of the Common Path
Axons from many neurons converge to synapse with EACH anterior motor neuron Principle of Convergence
Descending tract whose axon fibers travel through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata on their way to the spinal cord Pyramidal Tract
Descending tract whose axon fibers travel around the pyramids of the medulla oblongata on their way to the spinal cord Extrapyramidal Tracts
The pyramidal tract has two different tracts, what are they? Lateral and Ventral Corticospinal Tract
The cell bodies of the pyramidal tract are located where? Cerebral Motor Cortex
Which axons of the pyramidal tract cross in pyramids of the medulla and what percent of the pyramidal tract are these? lateral corticospinal; 85%
Which axons of the pyramidal tract cross in the spinal cord and what percent of the pyramidal tract are these? ventral corticospinal; 15%
T/F: Pyramidal tract axons synapse indirectly with anterior horn motor neurons via interneurons OR synapse directly with anterior horn motor neurons True
Primary neuron cell bodies of the extrapyramidal tracts are located where? In cerebral motor cortex
Extrapyramidal tracts axon fibers project to and synapse where? subcortical centers
Secondary neuron cell bodies of the extrapyramidal tracts in ______ then send their axons where? subcortical centers; directly or indirectly to synapse on anterior horn motor neurons
Do all extrapyramidal tracts decussate (cross)? No they do not
All intrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by what? posterior primary divisions of spinal nerves (Dorsal Rami)
Superficial Layer of the back Splenius Capitis & Splenius Cervicis
Fiber direction of the superficial layer of the back superior and lateral
O - Lower Ligamentum Nuchae, SP of Upper Thoracic(T1-3) I - Mastoid Process and Adjacent Occiptal Bone Splenius Capitis
O - SP of Upper Thoracic(T3-6) I - TP of Upper Cervical(C1-C3) Splenius Cervicis
Bilateral and unilateral actions of the Splenius muscles BL - draws head back UL - laterally bend and rotate the neck(turn face to same side)
Intermediate Layer of the back Erector Spine Muscles(Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Spinalis)
Fiber direction of the Erector Spine muscles Vertical
Most lateral Erector Spine group Iliocostalis muscles
Most intermediate Erector Spine group Longissiumus muscles
Most medial Erector Spine group Spinalis muscles
O - iliac crest, sacrum, thoracolumbar fascia I - angles of lower ribs Iliocostalis Lumborum
O - lower ribs I - angles of upper ribs and TP of C7 Iliocostalis Thoracis
O - upper ribs I - TP of mid-cervicals(C4-C6) Iliocostalis Cervicis
O - sacrum, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia I - lower 10 ribs and TP of lumbar and thoracic vertebrae Longissimus Thoracis
O - TP of upper thoracic vertebrae I - TP of cervical vertebrae (not C1) Longissimus Cervicis
O - TP upper thoracic, articular processes of lower cervical vertebrae I - Mastoid Process Longissimus Capitis
O - SP lower thoracic vertebrae I - SP upper thoracic vertebrae Spinalis Thoracis
Which Erector Spine muscle often has only scant fibers? Spinalis Cervicis
Which Erector Spine muscles often is considered part of the semispinalis capitis muscle? Spinalis Capitis
Bilateral action of the Erector muscles Extend Column
Unilateral action of the Erector muscles Bend Column Laterally
Action of Longissimus Capitis Extends Head and Turns Face to the Same Side
Deep layer of the back Rotators, Multifidus, Semispinalis mm, Interspinalis, Intertransversarii
Transversospinous mm include what? Rotators, Multifidus and Semispinalis mm
Deepest transversospinous mm is what? Rotators
O - TP I - SP of vertebrae ONE segment above origin Short Rotators
O - TP I - SP of vertebrae TWO segments above origin Long Rotators
Multifidus mm are found where? Throughout the length of the column
O - TP I - SP of vertebrae TWO or FIVE segments above origin Multifidus
Where is the Semispinalis muscles found? From T10 and above
General origin of the Semispinalis mm. TP
What are the three groups of the Semispinalis mm. and how are they grouped? Semispinalis Thoracis, Cervicis and Capitis; Based on their Insertion
O - TP I - SP of upper thoracic vertebrae(T1-4) Semispinalis Thoracis
O - TP I - SP of cervical vertebrae(up to C2) Semispinalis Cervicis
O - TP I - Occipital Bone Semispinalis Capitis
Action of the transversospinalis muscles Extend column and rotation it to the opposite side
Muscle that is between the SP of adjacent vertebrae Interspinalis
Interspinalis is best developed where and absent where? Cervical; Thoracic
Action of the Interspinalis muscles Extend the Column
Muscle that is between the TP of adjacent vertebrae Intertransversarii
Intertransversarii are best developed where and absent in most of where? Cervical; Thoracic
Action of the Intertransversarii Muscles Extend Column and Bend Toward the same side
4 Suboccipital Muscles Rectus Capitis Posterior Major, Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor, Obliquus Capitis Inferior and Obliquus Capitis Superior
The 4 Suboccipital Muscles lie deep to which muscle? Semispinalis Capitis
Rectus Capitis Posterior Major (Origin, Insertion) O - SP of C2 I - Occipital Bone, Inferior to Inferior Nuchal Line
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor (Origin, Insertion) O - Post Tubercle of C1 I - Occipital Bone, Immediately Medial to Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
Obliquus Capitis Inferior (Origin, Insertion) O - SP of C2 I - TP of C1
Obliquus Capitis Superior (Origin, Insertion) O - TP of C1 I - Occipital Bone, Near Inferior Nuchal Line
Actions of the Suboccipital mm. Extend and Rotate the head to the Same Side
Innervation of the Suboccipital mm. Suboccipital Nerve - post primary division of C1
Suboccipital Triangle Obliquus Capitis Superior, Obliquus Capitis Inferior and Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
Structures within the Suboccipital Triangle Vertebral Artery and Suboccipital Nerve
Junction of the coronal and sagittal suture. Bregma
The point on each side of the skull where the parietal and temporal bones meet the greater wing of the sphenoid. Pterion
The point behind the ear where the parietal, temporal, and occipital bones meet. Asterion
The point of junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures of the skull Lambda
A membrane-covered opening in bone or between bones; specifically: any of the spaces closed by membranous structures between the uncompleted angles of the parietal bones and the neighboring bones of a fetal or young skull Fontanelle
Suture between the Parietal bones of the skull Sagittal Suture
Suture between the Parietal Bones and the Occipital Bone Lamboidal Suture
Suture between the frontal bone and the Parietal Bones Coronal Suture
Skull has how many bones? 22 bones (28 including ear ossicles)
Forms the forehead and roof of the orbit Frontal Bone
Ridge over each orbit in the frontal bone Superciliary Arches
Smooth area in the midline between the 2 superciliary arches Glabella
Trnasmits supraorbital N.A.V in Frontal Bone Supraorbital Foramen
Forma a large part of the roof of the orbit in frontal bone Orbital Process
In the anterior cranial fossa and transmits an emissary vein in frontal bone Foramen Cecum
Curved ridge along the lateral surface where the temporal fascia attaches Superior Temporal Line
Curved ridge just inferior to the superior temporal line where part of the temporalis muscle attaches Inferior Temporal Line
Flat Portion on the lateral Skull Squamosal Portion of the Temporal Bone
Houses the Inner Ear Petrous Portion of the Temporal Bone
Transmits an emissary vein, often absent on the Temporal Bone Mastoid Foramen
Transmits most of Facial N(CN 7) Stylomastoid Foramen
Transmits internal carotid artery Carotid Canal
Formed between temporal and occipital bone; Transmits Internal Jugular Vein, Glossopharyngeal N(CN 9), Vagus N(CN 10), Acessory N(CN 11) Jugular Canal
Formed between the temporal, sphenoid and occipital bones. Filled with cartilage. Foramen Lacerum
Opening of the external ear External Acoustic Meatus
On the posterior wall of the petrous portion of the temporal bone(inside of skull) Internal Acoustic Meatus
Transmits Facial and Vestibulocochlear Nerves Internal Acoustic Meatus
Transmits spinal cord, Vertebral aa., and the spinal portion of CN 11(Accessory N) Foramen Magnum
On inferior surface of Occipital Bone and articulates with the Atlas. Occipital Condyles
Projection on the posterior aspect of the Occipital Bone EOP
Curved ridge extending laterally from the EOP Superior Nuchal Line
Inferior to the superior nuchal line Inferior Nuchal Line
Oblique canal that opens posterior to the occipital condyles. Transmits an emissary vein and is often absent. Condylar Canal
Opens anterior to the occipital condyles on the base, transmits CN 12. Hypoglossal Canal
Basilar portion, anterior to the foramen magnum. Clivus
Deep curving groove extending from the jugular foramen in the Occipital Bone Sulcus for the sigmoid sinus
Projection of the inner, posterior aspect in the midline of the occipital bone IOP
Deep horizontal groove extending from the IOP and joining the sulcus for the sigmoid sinus. Sulcus for the Transverse Sinus
4 regions of the sphenoid Body, Lesser Wing, Greater Wing and Pterygoid Processes
Where is the sphonid sinus's? Body of the Sphenoid
Deep seat in the sella turcica of the body of the sphenoid which houses the pituitary Hypophyseal Fossa
Forms part of the orbit, the lateral surface of the skull and middle cranial fossa. Greater Wing of the Sphenoid
Foramen that transmits the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. Foramen Rotundum
Foramen that transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Foramen Ovale
Foramen that transmits the middle meningeal artery Foramen Spinosum
Forms portions of the orbit and anterior cranial fossa Lesser Wing of the Sphenoid
Foramen that transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery. Optic Canal
Large space between lesser and greater wings. Superior Orbital Fissure
What transmits CN 3, CN 4, CN V1(Ophthalmic division of Trigeminal, CN 6. Superior Orbital Fissure
Pointed projections extending over the Sella Turcica. Anterior Clinoid Process
Grooves uniting the 2 optic canals Chiasmatic Groove
Downward projections from the body of sphenoid and greater wings on the base of the skull Pterygoid Process
Created by: 1277880004