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NWHSU GA Exam #4

Northwestern Health Sciences University - Gross Anatomy Exam #4 -Doctor Wallace

QuestionAnswer
Erector Spinae Muscle which inserts on the mastoid process? (be specific!!) Longissimus Capitis
Erector Spinae muscle which originates from the upper ribs and inserts into the transverses processes of mid-cervical vertebrae? (be specific) Iliocostalis Cervicis
Muscle originating off SPs of upper thoracic vertebrae (T3-6) and inserting on the TP's of upper cervical (C1-3)? Splenius Cervicis
Suboccipital muscle that originates off the posterior tubercle of the ATLAS and inserts into the medial part of the occipital bone? Rectus Capitus posterior MINOR
Muscle found throughout the length of the vertebral column; it arises from the TPs and inserts into the SPs of 2 to 5 segments above the origin? Multifidus
Give two actions of the suboccipital muscles? Bilaterally: Extension of head. Unilaterally: rotation of head to same side.
The effector organ of a somatic reflex arc? Skeletal Muscle
Stretch reflex arc -- what I the stimulus which causes this reflex? Myotaxis or stretch on the muscle spindle fibers
Stretch Reflex Arc-- Is it a contralateral reflex? If not, what is it? No - it is an ipsilateral reflex
Erector Spinae muscle which originates off the lower ribs and inserts into the angles of upper ribs and TP of C7? Iliocostalis Thoracis
Muscle that originates from TP's of vertebrae and inserts into SP's of vertebrae ONE segment above origin? Short rotators
Muscle best developed in cervical region, also present in lumbar region -- absent in most of the thoracic area; extents vertebral column and bends column toward the same side? Intertransversalii
Muscle that originates off the posterior tubercle of the atlas and inserts into the medial part of the occipital bone? Rectus Capitus posterior minor
Superficial layer muscle which originates on the lower ligament nuchae and SP of upper thoracic (T1-3) and inserts on the mastoid process and adjacent occipital bone? Splenius Muscle
Superficial layer of muscles that originates off of the SPs of the upper thoracics (T3-6) and inserts on the TP's of upper cervical (C1-3)? Splenius Cervicis
What are the actions of the Superficial layers of the head muscles? (splenius Capitus and cervicis)? Acting alone - laterally bend and rotate the neck (turning to face the same side). Acting together - draws back head.
Erector spine muscle {group} that are the most lateral column generally arising from the iliac crest and inserting on the ribs? Iliocostalis (lumborum, Thoracis, Cervicis)
Which erector spinae muscle originates on the iliac crest, sacrum, thoracolumbar fascia, and inserts on the angles of the lower ribs? The iliocostalis lumborum
Which erector spinae muscle originates on the lower ribs and inserts on the angles of upper ribs and TPs of C7? Iliocostalis Thoracis
Which erector Spinae muscle originates off the upper ribs and inserts on the TP of mid cervicals (c4-6)? Iliocostalis Cervicis
Which group of Erector Spinae muscles lie in the intermediate column, and generally run between TP's? Longissimus (Thoracis, Cervicis, Capitis)
Which Erector Spinae muscle originate on the sacrum, Iliac crest, Thoracolumbar fascia, and insert on the lower 10 ribs and TP of lumbar and thoracic vertebrae? Longissimus Thoracis
Which erector Spinae muscle originates off the TP of the upper thoracic vertebrae and insert on the TP of cervical vertebrae (up to C2; not including C1)? Longissimus Cervicis
Which Erector Spinae Muscle originates off the TP of the upper thoracis, articular processes of lower cervical vertebrae, and inserts on the mastoid process? Longissimus Capitus
Which erector Spinae group are the most medial column, running between Spinous Processes; found primarily in the thoracic region? Spinalis group (Thoracis, Cervicis, Capitis)
Which erector Spinae muscle originates on the SP of the lower thoracic vertebrae and inserts on the SP of the upper Thoracic vertebrae? Spinalis Thoracis
Which erector Spinae muscles are often only scant fibers? Spinalis Cervicis
Which Erector Spinae muscles are now considered part of Semispinalis Capitis? Spinalis Capitis
What muscle groups are included in the categorized muscle group called Trasnversospinous? Rotators, Multifidi, and Semispinalis
Rotators, Multifidi, and Semispinalis muscles are categorized as _____________________. Transversospinous Group
Which muscle group in the Transversospinous group are the deepest? *also found throughout the length of the columns? The Rotators
Which Transversospinous muscle originates from the TP's and inserts on the SPs of the vertebrae ONE segment above the origin? The Short Rotators
Which Transversospinous muscle originates on the TP's and inserts on the SP of the vertebrae TWO segments above the origin? The Long Rotators
Which Transversospinous group originates on the TP's and inserts on the SPs of the vertebrae 2-5 segment above the origin? Multifidus
Which group of Transversospinous group is found from T10 upward? Semispinalis muscles (thoracis, cervicis, and Capitis)
Which muscle group of the Transversospinous group have an origin: TP and Insertion: SP of vertebrae six or more segments above the origin? Semispinalis
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group insert on SP of upper thoracic vertebrae (T1-4)? Semispinalis Thoracis
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group inserts on SP of cervical vertebrae (up to C2)? Semispinalis Cervicis
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group are associated with the Occipital bone? The Semispinalis Capitis
Action of the Erectors? Muscles acting bilaterally extend column. Muscles actin on one side bend column laterally.
Action of the Longissimus Capitis? Extends head and turns face to the same side
Action of the Transversospinous muscles? Extend column and rotate it to the opposite side
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group extend between the SP of adjacent vertebrae? Interspinalis muscles
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group are best developed in the cervical region (absent in the thoracic area)? Interspinalis muscles
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group act to extend the vertebral column? Interspinalis Muscles
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group run between the TPs of adjacent vertebrae? Intertransversarii muscles
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group is best developed in the cervical region (absent in MOST of the thoracic area)? Intertransversarii muscles
Which muscle of the Transversospinous group act to extend column and bend toward the same side? Intertransversarii muscles
The four muscles of this group lie deep to the Semispinalis Capitis? Suboccipital muscles
Which Suboccipital muscle originates on the SP of C2 and inserts on the occipital bone, inferior to the inferior nuchal line? The Rectus Capitis Posterior Major Muscle
Which Suboccipital muscle originates on the posterior tubercle of C1 and inserts on the occipital bone, immediately medial to rectus Capitis posterior major? Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor Muscle
Which Suboccipital muscle originates at the SP of C2 and inserts on the TP of C1? The Obliquus Capitis Inferior
Which Suboccipital muscle originates on the TP of C1 and inserts on the occipital bone, near the inferior nuchal line? The Obliquus Capitis Superior
List the Action of the Suboccipital muscles? Extend and rotate the head to the same side.
What is the innervation of the suboccipital muscles? The Suboccipital nerve - which is the posterior primary division of C1
What muscles make up the Suboccipital Triangle? Obliquus Capitis Superior, Obliquus Capitis Inferior, and Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
What structures lie within the Suboccipital Triangle? The suboccipital Nerve and Vertebral Artery
All intrinsic muscles of the back are innervated by the _________________? Posterior Primary divisions of the Spinal Nerves
Caranial outflow? 3,7,9,10
Combined ginglymus and plane joint? Temperomandibular joint
Articular surfaces of the mandibular condyle and mandibular fossa are covered by ______________? Fibrocartilage
Which reinforcing structure of the Temperomandibular joint go from the zygomatic arch to the neck of the mandible (laterally)? The Lateral Ligament (or TM ligament)
Which reinforcing structure of the temperomandibular joint go from the spine of sphenoid to the ligula of the mandibular foramen? (medially) Sphenomandibular ligament
Which reinforcing structure goes from the styloid process to the angle and lower posterior surface of the mandibular ramus? Stylomandibular ligament
What are the 4 primary muscles of mastication? (1) The Masseter (2) he Temporalis (3) The medial pterygoid (internal) (4) The Lateral Pterygoid (external)
What innervates the 4 primary muscles of mastication? The mandibular branch of cranial nerves (Tregenial V3)
What muscle originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle and lateral surface of mandibular ramus? The masseter
The fiber course of the masseter goes which directions? Downward and backwards
Action of the masseter? Pulls up and a little forward
erector spinae muscles which originates off the iliac crest, sacrum, and thoracolumbar fascia and inserts into angles of lower ribs? Iliocostalis lumborum
Erector Spinae muscles which originates off the spines of the lower thoracics and upper lumbar vertebrae and inserts into the spines of upper thoracic vertebraes (BE SPECIFIC)? Spinalis Thoracis
Which system consists of two neurons conducting from the central nervous system to the periphery? The Autonomic Nervous System
The ANS is a _________ system? Motor system
One neuron from the ANS is in the brain or spinal cord and is called a ___________________? Preganglionic Neuron
One neuron (from the ANS) is located somewhere outside the CNS and is called a _______________________? Postganglionic Neuron
What do the postganglionic neurons innervate? Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, or Glands
Cranial outflow? Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10
Cranial Nerves 3,7,9,10 are categorized as _____________ Cranial outflow
Thoracolumbar outflow? Spinal Nerves T1-L2 (L3)
Sacral Outflow? S2-S4 - called pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes
Cranial and sacral outflows are grouped together because there is similarity in location of their ganglia and the cranial and sacral outflows are also similar anatomically and pharmacologically. Known as ____________? Parasympthetic Division
The Thoracolumbar outflow is grouped together because of similarity anatomically and pharmacologically and is spoken of as the _________________. Sympathetic Division
_______________ Tend to be in or very close to the organs that hey innervate? Parasympathetic Ganglia
________________ Tend to be at some distance from the organs innervated? Sympathetic Ganglia
Sympathetic Ganglia are present in the ____________________ Anterior to the vertebral extremity of each rib. Sympathetic trunk - Paravertebral ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia are also present around the bases of great vessels in the abdomen as the ______________________ : celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia) Collateral Ganglia (prevertebral)
All Preganglionic fibers whether they are sympathetic or parasympathetic are ___________? Cholinergic
Associated with, but NOT part of the Autonomic Nervous System are _____________? Afferent Fibers
Preganglionic cell bodies are located in the _____________________________ Intermediolateral cell column (lateral horn)
White Rami Communicates are whitish in color due to __________. Myelin
White Rami Communicantes are only on spinal nerves: T1-L2(L3)
The number of ganglia forming the sympathetic chain is approximately _________ pairs 22 pairs
Sympathetic Trunk usually has ___ Cervical ganglia 3 - superior, middle, and inferior
Sympathetic Trunk usually has ___ Thoracic Ganglia 11
Sympathetic Trunk usually has ____ Lumbar Ganglia 4
Sympathetic trunk usually has ______ ganglia in the sacrococcygeal region less than 5
Thoracic Splanchnic nerves - Greater Splanchnic are found where? T5-T9 Cord Segments
Lesser Splanchnic nerves are found where? T10-T11
Least Splanchnic nerves are found where? T12
Lumbar Splanchnic nerves (sympathetic) are found where? L1-L2 (L3)
Pelvic Splanchnic nerves are found where (parasympathetic)? S2-S4
____________________ This system is also organized on the basis of pre- and postganglionic neurons? Parasympathetic division of ANS
The Preganglionic neurons are located in nuclei of: __________________________ Certain cranial nerves and the sacral segments of the spinal cord
The term rami communicantes is used only in reference to ______________________ The Sympathetic system
The term ______________ is used only in reference to the sympathetic system Rami Communicantes
(sympathetics to head) _________ synapse mainly in the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk? Preganglionics
(sympathetics to head)__________ to head structures? Postganglionics
(sympathetics to thoracic viscera) ___________ synapse in superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia; and upper 4 or 5 ganglia of the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk? Preganglionics
(sympathetics to thoracic viscera) ___________ via small visceral branches to thoracic viscera? postganlionics
_______________ Erector Spinae muscle which originates off iliac crest, sacrum, and thoracolumbar fascia and inserts into angles of lower ribs? Iliocostalis lumborum
_________________ erector spinae muscle which originates off the spines of lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae and inserts into the spines of upper thoracic vertebrae? Spinalis Thoracis
___________intrinsic back muscle which originates off the transverse process of a vertebra and inserts into the spine of one or two vertebrae above? Rotators
___________ muscle that lies immediately posterior to most of the suboccipital muscles? Semispinalis Capitis
___________ muscle best developed in cervical region, also present in the lumbar region -- absent in thoracic area; act to extend the vertebral column, but does NOT bend it laterally? Interspinalis muscles
___________ muscle best developed in cervical region, also present in the lumbar region -- absent in thoracic area; Extents vertebral column and bends column toward the same side. Intertransversarii muscles
Besides being 3 sensory neuron relay, list 4 general principles about different tracts to the cerebral cortex? (1) 2nd neuron Decissatis (2) discriminating awareness occurs in cerebral cortex (3) crude awareness occurs in thalamus (4) principle of divergence
_____________ the effector organ of a somatic reflex arc? Skeletal muscles
What is meant by an intersegmental reflex? reflex involves more than 1 spinal segment
_________________ innervation of the deep intrinsic back muscles? posterior primary division of the spinal nerves
_______________ Erector spinae muscle which inserts on the mastoid process Longissimus Capitus
_____________ muscle which originates off the SP of axis and inserts on the TP of the atlas? Oblique Capitus Inferior
Discuss the MOVEMENTS of the articular dis and condyle of the TM joint during opening the mouth? The articular disk and mandibular condyle protract in a downward motion until they lie underneath the mandibular foramen. Protraction in a hinge (joint) motion
Name the ligaments responsible for reinforcing the teporomandibular joint? (1) Lateral Ligament (2) Sphenomandibular ligament (3) Stylomandibular ligament
Describe the basic structure of the temperomandibular joint (be detailed and complete)!! The joint is made up of the mandibular notch &the mandibular foramen,which both are covered by fibrocart.The fibrocartilangenous disc,known as the articular disc,seperates the joint capsule into superior &inferior portions.(Known as the hinge&plate joint)
Give data for the lateral pterygoid (give MAJOR action): Protraction of the jaw
Give data for the temporalis (give 2 actions): (1) retraction of the jaw (2) Elevation of the mandible
Besides drawing the head posteriorly, give 2 actions of splenius Capitis: (1) rotate the head to the same side (2) bends the head laterally
What is meant by an ipsilateral reflex? impulse + effector on the same side of the body (afferent and Efferent on same side)
______________ the effector organ of a somatic reflex arc? Skeletal muscle
Discuss in detail how most sympathetic are supplied to thoracic viscera. you may begin with the white ramus communicans. BE SPECIFIC AND COMPLETE!! Preganglionic synapse in the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia and C1-4 ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. Postganglionics - Go through the thoracic viscera
Define Reflex? Involuntary movemen or exercise of function in a part produced in response to an excitation caused by a peripheral (peripheral to CNS) stimulus
What is the simplest reflex pattern? sensory neuron --> motor neuron --> Effector neuron --> involuntary response
Define Reflex Arc? Series of anatomical parts trough which the reflex impulse travels (ie the route of the reflex impulse)
______________ contains cell bodies (perikarya) of GSE motor neurons --> skeletal muscle Anterior horn (GSE motor function)
_____________ contains prefanflionic GVE cell bodies o autonomic nervous system Lateral horn (GVE motor functions
Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are present where? T1-L2 (L3)Spinal Cord Levels
Cell bodies of preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons are present where? S2-4 spinal cord levels
_____________________ contains cell bodies of certain tract neurons, interneurons, etc. Posterior Horn (GSA, GVA Sensory function)
________________ contains sensory fibers entering spinal cord Dorsal root with dorsal root ganglion
_________ contains motor fibers leaving spinal cord the ventral root
________________________ Represents fused dorsal and ventral roots; contains both sensory fibers entering cord and motor fibers leaving cord Complete (mixed) spinal nerves
somatic reflex arcs produce contractions of _____________ Skeletal muscle
List the three somatic reflex arcs? (1) stretch reflex (2) Flexor reflex (3) Crossed-extensor reflex
Where are the afferent and efferent neurons located in the stretch reflex? afferent sensory neuron - cell body in dorsal root ganglion. Efferent motor neuron - cell body in anterior horn
what kind of stimulus is produced from the stretch reflex? myotatic stimulus
Flexor reflex? stimulous is usually superficial. reflex is a protective withdrawal through the contraction of flexor muscles. eg. removal of finger from a hot object
stretch reflex? increased stretching may be due to external pressure exerted on a tendon (eg. knee jerk reflex)
Crossed-extensor reflex? Stimulus causes contraction of extensor muscles on opposite side of body
_______________ reflex in which center of the reflex arc lies in the spinal cord? Spinal cord reflex
_______________ any reflex produced by stimulating a deep structure (eg. a tendon or bone) Deep reflex
___________ is a deep reflex in which a tendon is stimulated Tendon reflex
__________________________ a reflex controlled by a single segment of the cord (eg L2) Intrasegmental (unisegmented) reflex
_____________________ a reflex controlled by more than one segment of the ford (eg. L2-4) Intersegmental (multisegmental) reflex
________________ stimulation on one side of the body causes a response on the opposite side? Crossed (contralateral) reflex
________________ response occurs on the same side of body as the stimulus Ipsilateral Reflex
_______________ response to stimulus is done by extensor muscles Extensor reflex
_____________________ response to stimulus is done by flexor muscles Flexor reflex
Define Spinal cord reflex? Reflex in which center of the reflex arc lies in the spinal cord
Define Deep reflex? any reflex produced by stimulating a deep structure (bone or tendon)
Define Tendon Reflex? is a deep reflex in which a tendon is stimulated
Define intrasegmental (unisegmented) reflex? a reflex controlled by a single segment of the cord (eg L2)
Define Intersegmental (multisegmented) reflex? A reflex controlled by more than one segment of the cord (eg. L2-4)
Define crossed (contralateral) reflex? stimulation on one side of the body causes a response on the opposite side
Define ipsilateral Reflex? response occurs on the same side of the body as the stimulus
Define Extensor Reflex? Response to a stimulus is done by the extensor muscles
Define Flexor Reflex? Response to a stimulus is done by the flexor muscles
What is the spinothalamic tract for? for pain, temperature, pressure and crude touch
What is the posterior white column-medial lemniscal system for? discriminating touch and proprioception
List the 5 general principles about afferent tracts to the cerebral cortex? (1) 3-neuron relay conducts impulses (2)Crude awareness of sensations occurs in the thalamus (3)Discriminating awareness of sensations occurs in the cerebral cortex (4) sensory neuron II decussate (5) "principle of divergence"
What is the "Principles of the common path"? motor neurons in the anterior gray horns of spinal cord are the FINAL common path for impulses to skeletal muscles
What is the "Principle of Convergence"? Axons from many neurons converge to synapse with each anterior motor neuron
Define the pyramidal tract? tract whose axon fibers travel through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata on their way to the spinal cord
______________ tract whose axon fibers travel through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata on their way to the spinal cord? The Pyramidal Tract
________________ specific tract which conducts proprioception and fine touch? Posterior White column
Posterior white column is a specific tract that conducts what? Proprioceptors and Discriminating touch
____________ specific tract used for pain, pressure, temp and crude touch Spinalthalamic tract
The Spinalthalamic tract is used for what? pain, pressure, temperature, and crude touch
Discuss in detail how most sympathetics are supplied to thoracic viscera. you may begin with the white ramus communicans. BE SPECIFIC AND COMPLETE!! Preganglionics will synapse in superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia as well as the first 4-5 thoracic sympathetic ganglia then postganglionic will go to thoracic viscera via small visceral branches
What are the spinal cord segments for the greater splanchnic nerve? Lumbar splanchnics? T5-9; L1-L2(L3)
____________ pharmacological classification of preganglionic sympathetic fibers? Cholineraic
Parasympathetics have _____ preganglionic fibers. both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are ____________. LONG; MYELINATED
Upon opening the moth, a patients jaw involuntary deviates to the right. this would indicate a possible lack of function of the ___________ of the _______ side. Lateral Pterygoid; right side
Out of the 4 major muscles of mastication, which is/are capable of elevating the mandible? Temporalis M., Masseter M., Medial Pterygoid
Out of the 4 major muscles of mastication, which is/are capable of depressing the mandible? Lateral Pterygoid
Give the SPECIFIC named area of the attachment of the mandible for the lateral ligament? lateral surface of neck of ramus of mandible
Name the structure(s) transmitted by the condylar/condyloid canal? emissary vein
Name the structure(s) transmitted by the foramen rotundum? CN V2
Name the structure(s) transmitted by the cribriform plate? CN I
Muscle that elevates hyoid bone. floor of the mouth and tongue during swallowing? Mylohyoid
Innervation of the anterior belly of digastric? CN V (5)
Suture present in fetus; usually disappears in adult? Frontal Suture
_____ Cranial nerve that supplies the lacrimal gland, sublingual gland, etc CN VII (7)
_____ The Sensory ONLY cranial nerves? 1,2,8
________ named portion of the temporal bone containing the inner ear? Detrous
__________ name given to the closed posterolatral fontanelle? Asterion
_______ smooth area in midline between the 2 superciliary arches? Glabella
_________________ forms part of the bony nasal septum, articulates with the vomer inferiorly? Perpedicular plate of ethmoid bone
___________ a pair of boney projections for muscle attachments on the anterior inner surface of the mandible? Mental spines
__________ insertion of the posterior scalene muscle second rib
innervation of posterior belly of the digastric? CN 7
____________ the MOTOR ONLY cranial nerves CN 3,4,6,11,12
_______ cranial nerve that supplies only the superior oblique muscle? CN4
Name the structure(s) transmitted by the foramen rotundum? CN 5 (trigeminal division 2 - V2)
Name the structure(s) transmitted by the mandibular foramen? Interior alveolar artery and mandibular N.A.V.
_____________ name given to the CLOSED anterior fontanelle? Bregma
__________ part of bony nasal septum that articulates with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid? Vomer
___________ a deep horizontal groove extending from the internal occipital protuberance and joining the "sulcus for the sigmoid sinus" Sulcus for the transverse sinus
__________ ridge over each orbit? Supracilliary arch
_________ part of sphenoid on which the hypophyseal fossa is located; this part is also known as "turk's saddle"? Sella turcica
___________ pair of projections for muscle attachments on the anterior inner surface of the mandible? Mental spine
____________ midline projection in anterior cranial cavity falx crebri, a sheet of dura attaches here; also known as the "cock's comb" Cristae galli
Created by: walkingbyfaith09