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OC CH 11&12 N & S

OC CH 11 & 12 The NORTH & SOUTH

1. Why were changes to manufacturing needed in the mid-1700s? (CH 11.1) The demand for products was greater than the amount of things that could be produced, so manufacturers were driven to find more efficient ways to produce enough goods to meet everyone's needs
2. What was the Industrial Revolution, and in what country did it begin? (CH 11.1) a period of rapid growth in using machines for manufacturing and production that began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s
3. What is a water frame and what is its significance? (CH 11.1) a large spinning machine powered by flowing water that could produce dozens of cotton threads at the same time; it revolutionized textile manufacturing by lowering the cost of cotton cloth and increased the speed of production
4. Who invented the water frame? (CH 11.1) Englishman Richard Arkwright
5. Who snuck the plans for the water frame into the U.S.? (CH 11.1) British mechanic Samuel Slater, who disguised himself as a farmer and immigrated to the United States with the plans
6. Why were more textile mills built in the North than in the South? (CH 11.1) The North had more rivers to provide power for the mills
7. Explain Eli Whitney’s important contribution to American manufacturing. (CH 11.1) He came up with the idea of interchangeable parts - parts of a machine that were identical - which made machines easier to assemble and broken parts easier to repair
8. What is mass production? (CH 11.1) A way of producing goods that requires the use of interchangeable parts, machine tools, and the division of labor to efficiently produce large numbers of goods (See pictures on textbook pages 348-9)
9. What was the Rhode Island System? (CH 11.2) Samuel Slater's strategy of hiring families to work in his textile mills and dividing the work into simple tasks
10. Who was Samuel Slater? (CH 11.2) He snuck water frame technology to the U.S. and had many successful mills in which he used the "Rhode Island System" of hiring families to work and and live in "mill towns," including a mill town called "Slatersville"
11. Who was Francis Cabot Lowell? (CH 11.2) a businessman and Massachusetts textile mill owner who completely changed the textile industry in the Northeast by hiring only young, unmarried women to work in his mills
12. What was the Lowell System? (CH 11.2) Francis Cabot Lowell's system of hiring young, unmarried women to work in his water-powered textile mills; the system included a loom that could spin thread and weave cloth in the same mill
13. What are some details about the lives of the “Lowell girls”? worked in mill 12-14 hours; followed rules & bell schedule; lived in boardinghouse with other women; were given social and educational opportunities; hot, dusty, loud working conditions, often resulted in health problems; many had cut and swollen hands
14. What were the working conditions at the textile mills? (CH 11.2) The equipment was set at increasingly higher speeds, causing workers to do more work for the same amount of pay so businesses could make more money; often dangerous and unhealthy conditions; hot, dusty, deafeningly loud machinery; injuries were common
15. What is a trade union? (CH 11.2) groups of workers that tried to improve pay and working conditions; sometimes staged strikes
16. What is a strike? (CH 11.2) a form of protest used by labor unions in which workers refuse to work until their demands are met by their employers
17. What was the Transportation Revolution, and when and where did it take place? (CH 11.3) U.S. 1800s - A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation, particularly the steamboat and steam train (railroads)
18. Who was Robert Fulton? (CH 11.3) American steamboat designer who in 1807 successfully tested the first full-sized commercial steamboat, called the Clermont, against the current of the Hudson River, resulting in demand for steamboat service to greatly increase
19. What were the benefits of steamboats? (CH 11.3) they were well-suited for river travel; could move upriver and did not rely on wind power; increased trade and profit by moving goods quickly and thus more cheaply; could be used to carry people and goods across the Atlantic Ocean
20. What Supreme Court case dealt with steamboats, and what did the Supreme Court decide in the case? (CH 11.3) Gibbons v. Ogden; the Supreme Court said the federal govt. was in control of interstate trade on U.S. waterways; freed up waters for even greater trade and shipping during the Transportation Revolution
21. What was the Tom Thumb and why was it significant to the Transportation Revolution? (CH 11.3) a locomotive designed by Peter Cooper, who raced it against a horse-drawn rail car to show its power, and is credited with bringing "railroad fever" to the United States
22. What were the main effects of railroads? (CH 11.3) Land was cleared to make way for new railroad tracks; new towns and cities near train stops;deforestation as demand for wood for paper and construction increased; great increase in the U.S. economy as railroads caused a great increase in trade and travel
23. What new fuel source was needed for steam engines, and what was the “old” fuel source? (CH 11.3) coal; wood was the "old" fuel.
24. What were some other important inventions of the early 1800s, and who were the inventors? (CH 11.4) Telegraph: Samuel F. B. Morse, could send info over great distances, Morse Code; Steel plow: John Deere, stronger than iron plows; Harvesting machine: Cyrus McCormick, more efficient wheat harvesting; Better sewing machine: Isaac Singer
25. What was the economic situation in the South in the late 1700s? (CH 12.1) Prices for crops were low, so some farmers decreased production, and the demand for slaves also declined
26. What was the cotton gin and who invented it? (CH 12.1) An invention by Eli Whitney in which a worker cranked the machine and "teeth" separated the seeds from the cotton fibers and the cleaned cotton dropped out of the machine
27. What effect did the cotton gin have on cotton production and slavery? (CH 12.1) It revolutionized the cotton industry and gave a boost to southern farming that resulted in an increase in demand for slave labor
28. What was the “cotton belt”? (CH 12.1) an area stretching from South Caroline to Texas that grew most of the country's cotton crop
29. Why did planters grow cotton as a main cash crop? (3 reasons) (CH 12.1) It was easy to grow, it was cheap to market (move and sell), and it could be stored over time
30. What are some details about new developments in farming that were made as a result of the cotton boom? (CH 12.1) Farmers began to apply scientific methods to improve farming, such as new fertilizers and crop rotation, in which they would change the crop grown on a plot of land every few years to keep the land fertile longer
31. What role did “factors” play in the cotton trade? (CH 12.1) They managed the cotton trade by making deals with merchants, arranging for passage for their crops aboard trading ships, and provided cotton planters with financial advice
32. What was a negative effect of cash crops on the economy of the South? (CH 12.1) There was less investment in southern industry because capitalists (people with money to start businesses) put their money into profitable cash crops
33. What are 3 examples of how the South used steam power? (CH 12.1) Southern lumber industry used steam-powered sawmills; Tredegar Iron Works in Virginia produced steam engines for locomotives; textile mills powered by steam no longer had to be built next to rivers or waterfalls, so more mills could be built in the South
34. Who were the groups that made up southern society? (CH 12.2) Wealthy white planters, yeoman farmers, poor whites, free African Americans, enslaved African Americans
35. What are some details about the “yeoman” farmer of the South? (CH 12.2) white owner of a small farm (about 100 acres); owned a few or no slaves, worked long with his slaves if he owned some; took great pride in his work as a farmer; families worked long hours at a variety of tasks
36. How did white slaveholders justify slavery? (CH 12.2) Many thought that their religion justified their position in society - They argued that God created some people (themselves) to rule others (This was against what many Northern Christians believed: that God was AGAINST slavery)
37. Why did many southern cities and states pass laws to limit the rights of free slaves? (CH 12.2) White southerners feared former slaves would try to encourage slave rebellions, so the laws made it difficult for them to meet and organize together
38. What was the main attitude about slavery in the North? (CH 11 & 12) Northerners believed slavery was wrong
39. What were "slave codes"? (CH 12.3) Strict laws passed in the South to control slaves' actions
40. Overall, how could you describe the lives and treatment of slaves? (CH 12.3) harsh; exhausting; inhumane
41. What are some examples of the ways the rights of free slaves in the South were limited? (CH 12.3) They could not vote, travel freely, or hold certain jobs; they could not live in certain states without permission; they had to be represented by a white person if they wanted to conduct business
42. Why couldn’t most slaves read or write? (CH 12.3) Some states had literacy laws that prohibited teaching slaves to read or write
43. Explain the main things slaves did to cope with the harsh conditions of their lives. (CH 12.3) Turned to family and religion for comfort; told folktales to teach lessons about ways to survive slavery; sang religious songs called spirituals; did little thing to rebel against their owners, such as working slowly when they weren't watching
44. What was Nat Turner’s Rebellion, and what effect did it have in the South? (CH 12.3) 1831: The most violent slave revolt in the U.S.; Turner believed God had told him to end slavery; he and other slaves killed about 60 white people, over 100 slaves were killed and Turner was eventually caught and executed
45. What were some small ways in which slaves rebelled against their slaveholders? (CH 12.3) Worked slower, ran away for a few days, broke equipment, sang songs with secret messages of escape
Created by: enid.robert