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NWHSU Biochem Exam 3

What 3 distinct components does the basic structure of nucleotides contain? -Pentose -Base (Purine or Pyrimidine) -1 to 3 Phosphate Groups
What are 4 functions of Nucleotides? 1 Building blocks for DNA and RNA synthesis 2 Energy currency of biological systems (ATP) 3 Chemical links in hormonal signals ("second messengers") 4STurctural components of several coenzymes (NaD+, FAD, Coenzyme A)
How many phosphate groups do each contain: Mononucleotide, Dinucleotide, and trinucleotide Mononucleotide -1P Dinucleotide -2P Trinucleotide -3P
What Carbon on the Pentose of a nucleotide makes the difference if that nucleotide is RNA or DNA and what is attached to that Carbon that makes it RNA or DNA? Carbon 2 OH Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) H Deoxyribose (DNA)
What are the pyrimidines and which ones are found in DNA, RNA, or both? Cytosine (Both) Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA)
What are the purines and which ones are found in DNA, RNA, or both? Adenine (Both) Guanine (Both)
What is the backbone of a Nucleic Acid? P-Pentose-P-Pentose
What is the number of the Carbon attached to the free Phosphate group and what is the Carbon attached to the next Phosphate group? Free Phosphate group is 5' End The next Carbon is 3'
What is in the free position of the last 3' Carbon? OH
Biosynthesis happens from 3' to 5' or 5' to 3'? 5'-3'
What is the simplified way of writing a nucleic acid? p-A-C-G-T-A-OH
Strands of DNA are: parallel or anti-parallel? anti-parallel
What are the 2 stabalizing forces of DNA? 1 Hydrogen bonding between strands 2 Hydrophobic interaction within strands between adjacent bases (Base Stacking)
How many hydrogen bonds are between A and T and how many hydrogen bonds are between C and G? a-t 2 hydrogen bonds c-g 3 hydrogen bonds
Who were the four people who discovered the structure of DNA? James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin
What are two Spontaneous Mutations? Deamination (Point Mutation) Depurination (Frame Shift)
Name the 8 ray types in order from longest waves to shortest waves. Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, Soft X-Rays, Hard X-Rays, Gamma Rays
Name the 8 ray types in order from highest energy to lowest energy. Gamma Rays, Hard X-Rays, Soft X-Rays, Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared, Microwaves, Radio Waves
When UV radiation forms thymine dimers, how does the DNA polymerase read it? 1 Thymine instead of 2 Thymine
X-Rays and Gamma Rays break covalent bonds and cause what two things? Opening of Rings (Point Mutations) Breaking of bonds in backbone (Fragmentation of Chromosomes)
ROS stands for what? Reactive Oxygen Species (Oxidative Agent)
What is an example of a deaminating agent? Nitrous Acid HNO2
Cells of the immune system have many antioxidant mechanisms that kill microorganisms with O-radicals and H2O2. These rely on antioxidants such as... Vitamin C, E, Slenium, flavonoids
Where do ROS/Oxidative agenst come from? reactions involving O2, Radiation, energy production in human body
What is another common name for fat or lipid and the correct name? Triglyceride Correct name-Triaylglycerol
What does a triglyceride consist of? Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids
What is a saturated fatty acid "saturated" with and why? Hydrogen's there are no double bonds
What does 6:0 stand for when naming a fatty acid? 6 Carbons 0 Double bonds
What makes a fatty acid unsaturated? 1 or more double bond in Hydrocarbon tail
What does PuFA stand for? Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Multiple double bonds)
Plants and plant products and meat/fish fed leafy plants have fatty acids in which configuration? Cis
What are 2 sources of trans fatty acids 1 Bacterial metabolism in ruminating animals 2 Human developed process (partial hydrogenation of oils = margarine)
Saturated Fatty acids have more, less or the same hydrophobic interaction as a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? More
More Carbons on the hydrocarbon tails means lower or higher H2O solubility? Will this raise or lower the melting point? Lower raise
More cis-double bonds means lower or higher H2O solubility? Will this raise or lower the melting point? More Lower
Which regulates and which increases inflammation: Omega 3, Omega 6 regulates omega 3 Increases Omega 6
Name the Fatty acid and describe what this is: 16:0 Palmitic Acid initial product of fatty acid synthesis
Name the Fatty acid, say if it is essential or not, and decide if it is Omega 3 or 6: 18:2^9,12 Linoleic Acid Essential Omega 6
Name the Fatty acid, say if it is essential or not, and decide if it is Omega 3 or 6: 18:3^9,12,15 Alpha-Linoleic Acid (ALA) Essential Omega 3
Name the Fatty acid, say if it is essential or not, and decide if it is Omega 3 or 6: 20:4^5,8,11,14 Arachidonic Acid Essential Omega 6 (Precursor of pro-inflatory eicosanoids)
Name the Fatty acid, say if it is essential or not, and decide if it is Omega 3 or 6: 20:5^5,8,11,14,17 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Essential Omega 3 (Precursor of anti-inflamatory eiocasanoids)
Name the Fatty acid, say if it is essential or not, and decide if it is Omega 3 or 6: 22:6^4,7,10,13,16,19 Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Essential Omega 3
Compare Carbs to fats in terms of accessibility Carbs- short term, quickly accessible, associate with H2O Fats- long term, takes longer to make accessible
Amphipathic compounds have what two properties? hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties
Glycerophospholips contain what? hydrophilic phosphodiesters like Choline
Phosphatidylcholine has another name and contains what essential nutrient? Lecithin Choline
Sphingolipids contain this in their spingosine: a)Phophate group B)amide C)C=O D)all three B)amide
The sphingolipid Ganglioside is an example of what? blood types
What does choline look like? HO-CH2-CH2-N(CH3)3
Choline is found in what foods? Beef, liver, egg, beef, lettuce, peanuts, milk.....
2 types of Phospholipids? Glycerolipids Sphingolipids
True or false: Sphingolipids are glycolipids and phospholipids. True
Ether Lipids contain what essential nutrient and what organic group? Choline Ether Group
Plasmalogen is a type of ether lipid with what 4 immune functions 1 Stimulates aggregation of platelets 2 Stimulates the release of serotonin (vasoconstriction0 3 Regulates inflation 4 Alergic reactions
What is the reulatory biomolecule released by leukocytes? Cytokine
Isoprenoids building block is what? Isoprene
How many rings are found in steroids? 4 rings
What is cholesterol a precursor for? Steroid hormones, Vit D biosynthesis, bile acids/salts
Prednisolone and prednisone are examples of what steroids? Synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs
Name 4 Isoprenoid compounds. Vitamin E-Antioxidant Vitamin K-blood clotting cofactor Warfarin-blood clotting coagulant Ubiquinone-coenzyme in E transport chain
What is the coenzyme in E transport chain needed for? ATP production
Steroid Hormones are produced where and transported how? Are the paracrine or endocrine hormones? glands Blood Endocrine Hormone
Eicosanoid Hormones are produced locally and act ____? Are they paracrine or endocrine hormones? Locally Paracine
3 exmples of paracrine hormones are prostaglandines, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. What do each do? Prostaglandines-inflamation, pain sensation thromboxanes-blood clot formation leukotriene-allergic reaction
Retino and Retinal are what? Pigments (Eyes skin Vit A)
Symport is uniport or co transport across a membrane? What does it do? Cotransport Moves in same dirrection (2 things in)
Antiport is uniport or co transport across a membrane? What does it do? Cotransport 2 things Move in opposite dirrection (one in one out)
Primary Active Transport means what? Does it go with or against the chemical gradient? Transport protein can directly use energy from ATP Up Against concentration gradient!
Secondary Active Transport uses symport or antiport proteins? Does it go with or against electrochemical gradient? symport Up Against (driven by ion moving down its gradient)
Does facilitate diffusion go down or up the chemical concentration gradient? Down
Does Simple diffusion go up or down concentration gradient? This is common for what organic solvents? Down hydrophobic fat soluble nonpolar solvents
Ion channel goes up or down the elctrochemical gradient? This involves what? Down Charges, Ions
What is the sum of all biochemical reactions in an organism? Metabolism
What is the sum of all Breakdown reactions (Degradative reactons) What does this yield? Catabolism ATP
What is the sum of all biosynthetic reactions? What does it require? Anabolism ATP
Photosynthesis looks like? What does it require? C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP (Energy) Requires Sunlight
Aerobic Cellular Respiration looks like what? H20 + CO2 + ATP ----> O2 + C6H12O6
In the oxgen cycle O2 in photosynthesis is oxidized or reduced and the H2O in aerobic cellular respiration is oxidized or reduced? 02 Oxidized H20 Reduced
In the Carbon cylce Glucose in Photosynthesis is reduced or oxidized and C02 in Aerobic Cellular respiration is oxidized or reduced? Glucose Reduced CO2 Oxidized
Stage 1 Acetyl-CoA production is the breakdown of what? Breakdown of nutrients to C2 Level
What happens in Stage 2 Acetyle-COA Oxidation? Complete oxidation of Carbon NAD+, FAD: Become reduced
What happens in Stage 3 Electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation? NADH, FADH2 are oxydized O2 reduced to H2O Redox rxn creates ATP
The more reduced the less or more potential energy when paired with O2? More!
Hydroxy contains C-OH
Carbonyl contains C=O
Carboxy contains COO-
Put these in order from most reduced to most oxidized. CO2, Saturated carbon chain, carbonyl, carboxy, hydroxy, unsaturated carbon chain. Organic Carbon chain, unsaturated Carbon chain, Hydroxy, Carbonyl, Carboxy, CO2
Created by: T1NWHSU
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