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Chapt. 14-15 Vocab

Chapt. 14-15

1. Totalitarianism A theory of government that a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people.
2. Anti-Semitic Prejudice against Jewish people.
3. Spanish Civil War Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco rebelled against the democratic Republican government of Spain.
4. Appeasement Granting concessions to a potential enemy in hope that it will maintain peace.
5. Anschluss Union of Germany and Austria in 1933.
6. Munich Pact Agreement made between Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France in 1938 that sacrificed the Sudetenland to preserve peace.
7. Blitzkrieg A sudden attack that hit Poland from three directions.
8. Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan, and several other nations in an alliance.
9. Allies Britain, France, and eventually many other nations, including the Soviet Union, the United States, and China.
10. Neutrality Act of 1939 Act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships.
11. Tripartite Pact Agreement that created an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
12. Lend-Lease Act Act passed in 1941 that allowed President Roosevelt to sell or lend war supplies to any country whose defense is considered vital to the safety of the U.S.
13. Atlantic Charter A joint declaration made in August 1941 by Great Britain and the United States, during World War II, that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of general security.
14. Pearl Harbor Hawaii, the site of the United States Navy's main Pacific base.
15. Woman's Army Corps (WAC) U.S. Army Group established during World War II so that women could serve in noncombat roles.
16. Bataan Death March During World War II, the forced march of American and Filipino prisoners of war under brutal conditions by the Japanese military.
17. Battle of Coral Sea World War II battle that took place between Japanese and American aircraft carriers.
18. Unconditional Surrender Giving up completely without any concessions.
19. Saturation Bombing Tactic of dropping massive amounts of bombs in order to inflict maximum amount of damage.
20. Tuskegee Airmen African American squadron that escorted bombers in the air war over Europe during World War II.
21. Battle of Midway Turning point in World War II in the Pacific, in which Japanese advance was stopped.
22. Executive Order of 8802 World War II measure that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded by the government.
23. Bracero Program Plan that brought laborers from Mexico to work on American farms.
24. Interment Temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group.
25. Kormatsu V. United States Case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
26. 442nd Regimental Combat Team All-Nisei fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history.
27. Rationing Government- controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime.
28. Office of War Information (OWI) Worked closely with the media to encourage support of the war effort.
29. Battle of the Bulge December 1944, Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using its reserves and demoralizing its troops.
30. Island Hopping World War II strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others.
31. Kamikaze Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during World War II.
32. Manhattan Project Code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb.
33. Holocaust The mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941–45.
34. Anti-Semitism Prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage.
35. Nuremberg Laws Laws enacted by Hitler to denied German citizenship to Jews.
36. Kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass," organized attacks in Jewish communities on November 9, 1938.
37. Genocide The deliberate killing of a large group of people, esp. those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
38. Concentration Camp A camp where civilians, enemy aliens, political prisoners, and sometimes prisoners of war are detained and confined, typically under harsh conditions.
39. Death Camp Nazi camps designed for extermination of prisoners.
40. War Refugees Board U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews.
41. Yalta Conference Meeting of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
42. Superpower An extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations.
43. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) International agreement first signed in 1947, aimed at lowering trade barriers.
44. United Nations The nations that signed the joint declaration in Washington, D.C., January 2, 1942, pledging to employ full resources against the Axis powers, not to make a separate peace, etc.
45. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Document promoted by the UN to promote basic human rights and freedoms.
46. Geneva Convention International agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war.
47. Nuremberg Trials Trials in which Nazi leaders were charged with war crimes.
48. Strategic Bombing Tactic of dropping bombs on key political and industrial targets.
49. D-Day June 6, 1944, the day Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy, France.
Created by: Adriano_Santos