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HISTORY

CH 8, Sec 1

QuestionAnswer
During the first half of the 1800s what transformed American life? Thriving Industries and Businesses
What was the early tranformation with thriving Industries and Businesses called? The Market Revolution
During the Market Revolution, what was the Goal of most Americans? Making MONEY
The Market Revolution created change and division between who/what? Divisions between the RICH & POOR and between PEOPLE in Different Regions of the country.
What was the Industrial Revolution? An ongoing effort (over many decades) to Increase Production by using machines rather than manuel effort.
In what country did the Industrial Revolution begin? Britain in th 1700's
In Britain what industry was involved that began the change to Industrial Revolution? The Textile or cloth making industry
Several British inventions encouraged the Industrial Revolution in America, what were they? The Spinning Jenny, The Water Frame, and Weaving Cloth
Name one Invention that played a particularly important role in the Industrial Revolution ? The Steam Engine
Who developed the first Practical Steam Engine and where? James Watt from Britain (1765-1785)
What were the first steam engines used for? To pump water out of coal mines & run textile machines
With British and American imporventment to the Steam Engine it become powerful enough to drive what? A Locomotive
Did the British easily share their knowledge of the steam engine and use in textiles with other people? No, it was GUARDED and against the law for workers to move out of Britain and/or send drawings of the machinery.
Who immigrated to the US and developed the first Water Powered Textile Mill Machinery & where? Samuel Slater at a shop in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Water Mills grew in number in America due to the need for what? Cloth (about 240 textile mills/most in Pennsylvania)
Name the New England Inventor credited with changing Industry forever? Eli Whitney
Name the first important Eli Whitney invention? Interchangeable Parts for Guns
Why were interchangeable Parts for guns so important? It initallialy took two weeks to make one gun. With interchangeable parts they could produce more guns faster and with more profit.
Name some of the inventions and technologies to come about during the Industrial Revolution? Steamboats, Cotton Gin, Steam Shovel, Interchangeable Parts, Canning Factory, Internal Combustion Engine, Mechanized Cotton Mill
Eli Whitney is also credited with another major invention,besides Interchangeable Parts for Guns, what was it? The Cotton Gin
What is a Machine that separates the Seeds from the raw fibers of the picked Cotton? The Cotton Gin
What does the word "Gin" mean? Engine or Machine
How did the Cotton Gin help production? Prior to the machine a worker could only clean ONE Pound of Cotton a day. With the machine a worker could clean 1,000 Pounds of Cotton in a day
What is a license from the Government giving and inventor the sole right to make, use, and sell and invention for a certain period of time? PATENT
Name FOUR Outcomes as a result of the Cotton Gin? 1)Higher Profit on Cotton 2)Southern Planters made Cotton their MAJOR Crop 3)Planters bought up more LAND to plant more cotton 4)Slavery Increased to work the cotton fields
Along with the Industrial Revolution came a revolution in what two areas? 1)Transportation 2)Communication
Roads that crossed swampy ground and had logs laid down acrosse the road for crossing were called what? "Corduroy Roads" because they looked like the cloth called Corduroy
A road financed by the government was the National Road and had another name as well, what was it? The CUMBERLAND ROAD / The National Road
What is the Cumberland Road called today? US Route 40
Most roads were built by which, the government or private investors? Private investors looking for a profit
How did Privat investors/builders of roads generate a profit? By collecting TOLLS
At key locations along a road their was a gate with a bar (that goes up & down) in place to stop traffic and collect a toll, what was this bar called? A PIKE
After a road toll was collected, the attendant would TURN the PIKE aside and allow the payer to pass. Thus road came to be called what? TURNPIKES
The FIRST Roads were used to get from what place to what place? One River to antother River.
What was the countries MAIN Travel Routes? Rivers
What were the TWO main River Vehicles for moving people and goods? KEElboats and FLatboats
Who Developed a Steam Powered Boat, that could travel in either direction on the rivers? Robert Fulton
What was the name of the Steam Powered Paddle Boat invented by Robert Fulton? The Clermont (North River Steamboat)
what are Artificial Waterways built by people called? CANALS
What Canal linked the Atlantic Coast with the Great Lakes? The ERIE Canal (built by state of New York, 363 miles long in 1825)
By 1840 how many miles of Artificial Canal did the nation have? 3000 miles of canals
The boats had to be TOWED along the Erie Canal, what animals were used? Mules or horses
The Erie canal gave rise to increased settlement and development and what city became a powerful center of business? New York City
Canals were important to transportation, but what mode of transportation was even more efficient? Railroads
Where did the first American Railroad begin? Baltimore, Maryland
What was the first Railroad that started in Baltimore, Maryland Named? The B & O Line (Baltimore & Ohio)
Communication was important in the new Revolution and consisted of what? A new & imporved Postal System, Daily newspapers. Magazines and books
What was the Change in the way America made, bought and sold goods called? THE MARKET REVOLUTION (The way goods are marketed)
What inventions came along based on the INDUSTIAL REVOLUTION? Cotton gin, steam shovel, interchangeable parts, mechanizec cotton mill, canning factory, internal combution engine, electromagnet
Why was Manufacturing so important? More goods available for purchase, people did not have to make everything individually for themselves, they could buy it
Whys was Investment Capital importnat? That is money loaned from banks. It enabled business to build or expand their businesess.
What is CENTRALIZATION? A Single Place where all the tasks for making a product is located. (Example making cloth, get cotton, gin it, weave it, dye it, do everything in one place...centralized)
Describe the FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM? An Economic System that rewards people that find a better,faster, more profitable way of doing business.
Describe SPECILIZATION? The system where each worker performs just ONE PART of an entire production process.
How did Banks make money during this time? By Charging Interest on Money Loaned Out.
Where did the Banks get their money to Loan? From the People who desposted their money in the banks for safekeeping
Describe INVESTMENT CAPITAL? Loans made to a business in Hopes of a Future Gain (Investing in a business, hopeing it would be successful and make more money)
What is a BANK NOTE? A piece of paper that banks issue to their customers so they can pay for goods and services. (Similiar to our modern CHECKS)
The value of a Bank Note could change due to the way the Bank was managed and money it had, T/F? True
Because the Bank Note value could flucauate, people perfered to get their money in what form? SPECIE, COIN OF GOLD OR SILVER
Specie (money) was scarce and hard to carry aroung, T/F? True
Created by: drivernow