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Urinary System Dse

Diseases of the Urinary System

What is Acute Glomerulonephritis? Inflammation of the kidneys primarily affecting children and young adults
How soon after a Streptococcal infection does Acute Glomerulonephritis typically occur? 1-4 weeks
List the signs and symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis? 1. Chills and Pyrexia 2. Anorexia 3. General Weakness 4. Generalized Edema(face/ankles) 5. Albuminuria 6. Hematuria 7. RBC casts in urine
The prognosis for Acute Glomerulonephritis is generally? Good if a chronic degeneration of nephrons does not occur
An inflammation of the kidneys that may persist for years with remission and relapses is called? Chronic Glomerulonephritis
Chronic Glomerulonephritis is usually accompanied by what condition? Hypertension(HTN)
A sign of Chronic Glomerulonephritis is? A low specific gravity of the urine
The end result of Chronic Glomerulonephritis can be? Renal Atrophy and Renal Failure(RF)
Renal Failure causes what condition? Uremia(Azotemia)
A blood condition of excessive nitrogenous waste is known as? Uremia(Azotemia)
Renal Failure prevents the kidneys from doing what? Eliminating nitrogenous wastes
Identify the 4 blood tests commonly used to detect renal failure? 1. BUN(Blood Urea Nitrogen) 2. Cc(Creatinine Clearance) 3. Cys C(Cystatin C) 4. GFR(Glomerular Filtration Rate)
Name the causes of Acute Renal Failure(ARF)? 1. Hypovolemic Shock 2. Blood type or Rh incompatibility 3. Kidney disease 4. Trauma 5. Poisoning
List the signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure(ARF)? 1. Oliguria(Scanty Urine) 2. Anuria (No Urine Production) 3. Uremia(Azotemia) 4. Ammonia Breath 5. Hyperkalemia 6. Muscle Weakness that can lead to cardiac arrest
How is Acute Renal Failure treated? 1. Remedy the cause 2. HD(hemodialysis)until the kidneys begin to function properly
Name another type of Renal Dialysis? Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as? 1. Chronic Glomerulonephritis 2. Chronic HTN 3. Diabetic Neuropathy(DN)
Identify the treatment options for CRF? 1. Hemodialysis(HD) 2. Kidney Transplantation
Chronic Renal Failure can also be caused by? Acute Tubular Necrosis(ATN)
Causes of ATN include nephrotoxic agents such as? 1. Certain Antibiotics 2. Dyes used in diagnostic procedures
Suppurative inflammation of a renal pelvis is known as? Pyelonephritis
What 3 pyogenic organisms usually cause pyelonephritis? 1. E.coli 2. Strep 3. Staph
The organisms that cause pyelonephritis can cause what to form? Abscess(collection of pus)
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis are? 1. Chills and pyrexia 2. Back and abdominal pain 3. Dysuria 4. Pyuria 5. Bacteriuria 6. Hematuria
How is Pyelonephritis treated? Antibiotics
Renal carcinoma occurs more frequently in what group of people? 50-60 yr old men (2 to 1)
The incidence of renal carcinoma doubles for those who do what? Smoke
Why is the prognosis for renal carcinoma poor? Metastases to the lungs, liver, bone, and brain usually occur before signs and symptoms appear
What is the chief sign of renal carcinoma? Painless hematuria
What is the name for a malignant fast growing renal tumor in very young children? Wilm's tumor(WT)
Identify the main sign of a Wilm's tumor? Painless Hematuria
The prognosis for a WT is good if what? Metastasis has not occurred
What are alternative names for Kidney Stones? 1. Nephrolithiasis 2. Urinary Calculi
Urinary calculi occur more frequently in? 20-40 yr old men
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis occur when? A calculus obstructs a ureter
Identify the signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis? 1. Sharp severe retroperitoneal(flank)pain radiating to the inguinal(groin) region 2. Hematuria
What factors can cause nephrolithiasis? 1. Dietary Ca excess. 2. Dietary Protein and Na(sodium)excess 3. Hyperparathyroidism
What is the name for a calculus that fills a renal pelvis completely? Staghorn calculus
Identify the diagnostic tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus? 1. KUB 2. Renal Ultrasound 3. CT 4. IVP
What is the treatment method for a calculus that impedes the flow of urine? Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy(ESWL)
Name the condition where a kidney becomes extremely dilated with urine? Hydronephrosis
What conditions can cause hydronephrosis? 1. Renal Calculus 2. Tumor 3. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy(BPH)
Hydronephrosis is treated by? Removal of obstruction before permanent damage to a kidney occurs
Identify the leading risk factors for Chronic Kidney Disease(CKD)? 1. DM 2. Chronic HTN 3. WT gain 4. Smoking
Women who consume 2 or more cans of regular soda per day are twice as likely to develop? CKD
What is inflammation of the urinary bladder called? Cystitis
What is another name for cystitis? Bladder Infection
Why is cystitis more common in females? The female urethra is shorter than in males
E. Coli is the chief causative agent for what condition? Cystitis
Name the signs and symptoms of Cystitis? 1. Urinary frequency 2. Urinary urgency 3. Dysuria 4. Bacteriuria 5. Pyuria
Identify the methods of treatment for cystitis? 1. Forcing fluids 2. Antibiotics
Prognosis for cystitis is considered? Good
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 1. Wiping from front to back after a BM 2. Take showers for hygiene instead of baths 3. Do not douche unless directed by Dr 4. Refrain from wearing tight pants 5. Wear cotton underwear 6. Urinate after coitus 7. Increase fluid intake 8. Vit C in e
What is Urethritis? Inflammation of the urethra
What bacteria may cause urethritis in males? Gonococci(GC)
Signs and Symptoms of urethritis include? 1. Dysuria 2. Balanorrhea 3. Testicular Edema
What condition commonly accompanies urethritis in females? Cystitis
How is urethritis treated? Antibiotics
PID stands for? Pelvic Inflammatory Dse
PID refers to what? Inflammation of the female pelvic reproductive organs
What are the common causes of PID? Gonococci(GC) and Chlamydia
Identify the signs and symptoms of PID? 1. Lower abdominal pain 2. Pyrexia 3. Dysuria 4. Pungent Leukorrhea 5. Dyspareunia
What is a complication of untreated PID? Infertility
How is PID treated? 1. Antibiotics 2. ASA 3. Bed Rest 4. Fluids
What is Vaginitis? Inflammation of the vagina
Vaginitis is commonly caused by what microorganisms? 1. Candida albicans(candidiasis) 2. Trichomonas(trichomoniasis)
Candidiasis is AKA? Yeast Infection
Candida proliferation can occur with the use of? 1. Antibiotics 2. Douches
Candida proliferation can destroy the normal vaginal flora allowing what to occur? Opportunistic yeast infections
Vaginitis signs and symptoms include? 1. Pungent Leukorrhea 2. Vaginal Pruritis 3. Vaginal Burning and soreness
What is a common treatment for Candidiasis? Monistat(Miconazole)
A common treatment for Trichomoniasis is? Flagyl(metronidazole)
The incidence of yeast infections can be reduced by doing what? Drinking 2 or more glasses of milk daily.
What causes Atrophic Vaginitis? Atrophy of the vaginal septa(walls)
Atrophy of the vaginal septa is commonly caused by a decrease in? Estrogen associated with menopause
What is a common complaint of Atrophic Vaginitis? Dyspareunia
Treatment for Atrophic Vaginitis includes? 1. Estrogen Replacement Therapy(ERT) AKA: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) 2. Antibiotic Creams 3. Steroid Creams 4. Water Soluble Lubricants
Puerperal Sepsis is an infection of the endometrium that occurs when? After parturition or abortion
What is the most common cause of puerperal sepsis? Poor aseptic technique during parturition or abortion
Poor aseptic technique allows what pathogens to enter the uterine wall? 1. staphylococci 2. streptococci 3. Escherichia coli
The pathogens contracted from poor aseptic technique during child birth or abortion will cause? necrosis of the endometrium
Septic Shock is a complication of what condition? Puerperal Sepsis
The signs and symptoms of puerperal sepsis are? 1. Pyrexia and chills 2. Profuse and/or pungent lochia
How is Puerperal sepsis treated? Antibiotic therapy
Cervical cancer refers to? A malignancy in the cervix
Prognosis for cervical cancer is good if? It's detected before metastasis
What is the most common test used to detect cervical malignancy? PAP test every 2 years
After age 30 and 3 consecutive negative PAP tests women can be tested how often? Every 3 years
A PAP test is not required after a woman has what procedure? Hysterectomy
PAP tests should begin within what time frame? 3 years of becoming sexually active or by age 21
A cervical lesion detected before metastasis is known as? Carcinoma in Situ(CIS)
What are the different methods for treating Carcinoma in Situ? 1. Conization 2. Cryosurgery 3. Cauterization 4. Hysterectomy
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 1. Poor Hygiene 2. HPV 3. Multiple Sexual Partners 4. Intercourse at an early age 5. Smoking
What is the prevalence of cervical cancer? 2nd most common cancer in women after breast cancer-#1)
What are benign tumors of the myometrium called? Fibroid tumors
What is another name for fibroid tumors? Leiomyomas
Fibroid tumors are most common in what groups of women? 1. African American 2. Obese women
Risk for developing leiomyomas is? 1 in 5 women under the age of 50
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include? 1. Pelvic pain 2. Menorrhagia 3. Metrorrhagia 4. Dyspareunia
Treatment options for leiomyomas include? 1. Myomectomy(excision of myoma) 2. Myolysis(coagulation of the artery feeding the tumor) 3. Hysterectomy(Surgical removal of uterus)
The most common ovarian neoplasm is an? Ovarian cyst
An ovarian cyst is usually a? Benign fluid filled sac
An ovarian cyst will usually resolve on its own with what? Time
A large ovarian cyst that interferes with blood flow can be? Surgically removed
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS) is characterized by? 1. Androgen imbalance 2. Insuline imbalance
Signs and Symptoms of PCOS include? 1. WT gain 2. HTN 3. Increased facial and body hair 4. Alopecia 5. Irregular menses 6. Major Depressive Disorder(MDD) 7. Infertility
PCOS can increase the risk for what conditions? 1. Cardiovascular Disease 2. Diabetes Mellitus(DM)
How is PCOS treated? 1. Healthy Diet 2. Regular Exercise 3. BCPs 4. Smoking Cessation
What is the prevalence of Ovarian cancer deaths in women? 5th leading cause
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy are? 1. Prolonged abdominal bleeding and pelvic pain 2. Chronic fatigue 3. Anorexia 4. WT loss 5. Prolonged urinary frequency
What are the risk factors for an ovarian malignancy? 1. High fat diet 2. Nulliparity 3. Family Hx of ovarian,breast,or colorectal cancer 4. Childbearing after age 30 5. Delayed Menopause
During what two times during a woman's life do ovarian malignancies occur most frequently? Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal
Treatment for an ovarian malignancy includes? 1. Oophorectomy and Hysterectomy 2. Chemotherapy 3. Radiation therapy
What is the chemical in the blood that elevates with the presence of an ovarian malignancy? CA-125
The risk of ovarian neoplasms decreases with the use of? BCPs
The most common breast malignancy is? Adenocarcinoma
What factors result in adenocarcinomas of the breast occurring more often in women? 1. Nulliparity 2. Family Hx of Breast Ca
Adenocarcinomas frequently occur around the time of what? Menopause
List the common signs of a breast malignancy? 1. A hard fixed lump in the upper outer quadrant of the breast 2.Axillary lymphadenopathy 3. Papillary retraction 4. Skin can pucker and/or dimple 5. Papillary discharge
ACS mammogram recommendations include? 1. Annually for 40-49 yr olds if personal or family Hx exists 2. Ages 50-74 every 2 years
How often should Breast Self Examination(BSE)be performed? Every month starting at age 20
What is a woman's lifetime risk of developing a breast malignancy? 1 in 8
Confirmation of a suspected breast tumor can be made with? Stereotactic needle biopsy(Bx)
Malignant breast tumors can metastasize to what organs via the lymphatic system? Lungs,Liver,Brain,and Bones
What are the methods of treatment used for a breast malignancy? 1. Lumpectomy 2. Mastectomy 3. Radiation therapy 4. Chemotherapy
What factors increase the incidence of a breast malignancy? 1. ETOH 2. Smoking 3. Sedentary Lifestyle 4. Consuming Sugary Sweets 3 or more x week 5. ERT(Estrogen Replacement Therapy) 6. BCPs 7. Nulliparity 8. Folate Deficiency
What are some foods that are rich in folate(folic acid)? 1.Leafy Green Vegetables 2. Fortified Cereals 3. Legumes 4. Citrus 5. Bananas 6. Melons 7. Blackberries
Breast malignancy risk can be significantly reduced with? 1. Moderate exercise 2. Healthy weight 3. Breastfeeding
Breast malignancies are most common in women over what age? 45
The younger a person is with a breast malignancy means? The more aggressive the disease
The most common benign tumor of a breast is called? Fibroadenoma
What characteristics are typical of fibroadenomas? 1. Solid 2. Round 3. Rubbery 4. Painless 5. Move Freely
A second type of benign tumor of a breast is called? Fibrocystic Changes(FCC)or AKA: Lumpy Breasts
Fibrocystic changes usually occur in both breasts and increase in size and tenderness just prior to? Menses
A third type of benign breast tumor is? A fluid filled cyst
What characteristics are typical of a breast cyst? 1. Round 2. Moveable 3. Increase in size and become tender just prior to menses
Toxic Shock Syndrome is commonly caused by proliferation of what microorganism? Staphylococci
TSS is associated with use of what? Tampons
Identify the signs of TSS? 1. Hyperthermia(pyrexia >104.0) 2. Rash 3. Peeling Skin 4. GI Distress 5. Hypotension
How is TSS treated? 1. Fluid Replacement 2. Antibiotic Therapy
Women who use tampons are encouraged to do what? 1. Change tampon frequently 2. Avoid Super-absorbent tampons
Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS) is a group of symptoms that start 1-2 weeks before what ? Prior to menses
PMS usually cease with the onset of what? Menses
Signs and Symptoms of PMS include? 1. Lower abdominal pain and bloating 2. Breast swelling and tenderness 3. Cephalalgia 4. WT gain 5. Acne 6. Insomnia 7. Mood Swings 8. Anxiety 9. MDD 10. Irritability 11. Hostility 12. Crying Spells 13. Food Cravings 14. Clumsiness 15. Fatig
Treatment for PMS includes? 1. Increase water intake 2. Regular Exercise 3. Support Groups 4. Stress Management Techniques 5. The avoidance of salt,sugar,caffeine, and ETOH 6. OTC Analgesics
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder(PMDD)is a severe form of? Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS)
The signs and symptoms of PMDD are severe enough to do what? Interfere with work,social activities,and relationships
Treatment for PMDD includes? 1. Sedatives 2. Antidepressants
Endometriosis is a condition caused by? Ectopic endometrium
Ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause what? 1. Pelvic pain and Bloating 2. Menorrhagia 3. Metrorrhagia 4. Fatigue 5. Sterility
How is Endometriosis treated? 1. Laparoscopic excision of ectopic endometrium 2. Oral Contraceptive Pills(causing amenorrhea)
An ectopic pregnancy(EP) occurs when the fertilized ovum implants where? In tissue other than the uterus(womb)
What is the most common site for an EP? Fallopian Tube(Oviduct,Uterine tube)AKA: Tubal Pregnancy
What are the causes of Ectopic Pregnancy? 1. Salpingitis associated with STDs causing fallopian adhesions 2. Endometriosis
Identify the signs and symptoms of Ectopic Pregnancy? 1. Unilateral abdominal and/or pelvic pain 2. Vaginal Bleeding 3. Vertigo 4. Weakness and Syncope 5. N+V
Ectopic Pregnancy is treated by? Termination of pregnancy with methotrexate or laparoscopic salpingostomy
What is another term for spontaneous abortion? Miscarriage
What is often the cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester? Fetal Genetic Abnormality(Anomaly)
A spontaneous abortion usually occurs between what time of gestation? Between the 7th-12th weeks of gestation
Causes of miscarriage include? 1. Infection 2. Drugs,ETOH,Smoking,and Caffeine 3. Poor Nutrition 4. Toxins 5. Radiation
What is Dilation and Curettage? Surgical procedure performed to scrape endometrium if placental tissue remains after a spontaneous abortion
Another name for Toxemia is? Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia only occurs during when? Pregnancy(usually after 20 wks)
Identify the main signs of preeclampsia? 1. Pregnancy induced Hypertension(PIH) 2. Albuminuria 3. Edema 4. Unusual WT gain
If seizures develop while preeclamptic, the condition is then called? Eclampsia
Techniques to prevent eclampsia include? 1. Prenatal care 2. Proper nutrition
What is prostatitis? Inflammation of the prostate
What 2 microorganisms commonly cause Prostatitis? 1. E.coli 2. Gonococci
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 1. Urinary urgency 2. Urinary frequency 3. Dysuria 4. Pyuria 5. Hematuria 6. Painful ejaculation
Prostatitis usually responds well to what treatment? Antibiotic therapy
What is Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy? Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate
BPH is more common after what age? 50
The enlarged prostate can frequently be palpated by what method? Digital Rectal Exam(DRE)
When the enlarged prostate squeezes the urethra,the patient will complain of? 1. Dysuria 2. Urinary retention
Untreated urinary retention can cause? Hydronephrosis
BPH is treated by? 1. Avodart or Flomax 2. Cystoscopy and TURP(Transurethral Resection of the Prostate)
A prostatic malignancy may be small and initially what? Asymptomatic
List the signs and symptoms of a Prostatic Carcinoma? 1. Dysuria 2. Hematuria 3. Anorexia and WT Loss 4. Nocturia 5. Urinary incontinence(AKA: Enuresis)
What is the name for the blood test used to detect a predisposition for prostatic carcinoma? Prostatic Specific Antigen(PSA)
A PSA should be performed how often for men over age 50(45 for African American)? Annually
What areas are most common for prostatic carcinoma to metastesize? 1. Rectum 2. Lymph 3. Bone
A good prognosis for Prostatic carcinoma depends on what factor? Early detection
Treatment options for Prostatic carcinoma include? 1. Chemotherapy(estrogen) 2. Bilateral Orchiectomy 3. Radiation therapy 4. Prostatectomy
What is the condition of an undescended testicle known as? Cryptorchidism
Cryptorchidism can eventually lead to? Sterility
How is Cryptorchidism treated? 1. Orchiopexy 2. Orchiectomy
What is the term for inability to achieve or maintain an erection? Impotence (or Erectile Dysfunction)
What are the causes of ED? 1. Poorly controlled stress 2. Arteriosclerosis 3. DM 4. Complications of prostatectomy 5. Trauma 6. Side effects from medications 7. Drugs and/or alcohol abuse
What are the treatment choices for ED? 1. Viagra,Levitra,and Cialis 2. Penile Implant
STDs are also known as? STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Methods used to reduce incidence of STIs include? 1. Abstinence 2. Monogamy 3. Barriers(Condoms)
What is the most common STD? Chlamydia
Chlamydia is the number one cause of? Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)
True or False: Untreated Chlamydia can cause sterility in women? TRUE
True or False: Chlamydia infections are often symptomatic? FALSE-Chlamydia infections are often Asymptomatic
Signs and symptoms of Chlamydia in WOMEN include? 1. Dysuria 2. Pungent Vaginal Discharge 3. Dyspareunia 4. Dysmenorrhea 5. Abdominal Pain 6. vaginal Pruritis
Signs and Symptoms of Chlamydia in MEN include? 1. Dysuria 2. Balanorrhea 3. Testicular Edema
Chlamydia can be cured by? Antibiotics
Gonorrhea is caused by what microorganism? Gonococci
What STD is the 2nd most common? Gonorrhea
What does untreated gonorrhea cause in men and women? Sterility
If Gonorrhea is transmitted to a fetus during delivery what can it cause? 1. Blindness 2. Possibly Death
How soon after exposure do signs and symptoms of Gonorrhea usually appear? 2-10 days after exposure
True or False: Gonorrhea infections cannot be asymptomatic? False-They can be asymptomatic
Signs and symptoms of Gonorrhea for WOMEN include? 1. Greenish-yellow vaginal discharge 2. Lower abdominal pain 3. Pharyngitis 4. Dysuria
Signs and symptoms of Gonorrhea for MEN include? 1. Greenish-yellow balanorrhea 2. Dysuria 3. Pharyngitis 4. Testicular Edema
Gonorrhea can be cured by? Antibiotics
The Primary stage of Syphilis is characterized by? Chancres
What are Chancres? One or more painless ulcers that appear on the penis,labia,lips,tongue,or anus
How soon after contact will a syphilitic chancre develop? 10-90 days AFTER contact
How quickly does a chancre heal then disappear? 3-6 weeks
The primary stage of Syphilis is treatable with? PCN
If Primary syphilis is left untreated, the secondary stage begins within how long after exposure? 6 wks-6 mos and lasts 1-3 mos
What characterizes the second stage of syphilis? Non-pruritic rash typically on the palms and soles
The Secondary stage of Syphilis is treatable with? PCN
The Tertiary stage of Syphilis can occur how long after the primary infection? Years after
The Tertiary stage occurs in approximately what percentage of those infected with syphilis? 30% of the infected
Identify the complications of the Tertiary stage of syphilis? 1. Heart Disease 2. Blindness 3. Mental Illness 4. Death
What are the blood tests used to identify Syphilis? 1. VDRL 2. RPR 3. EIA
What is Genital Herpes? Extremely painful chronic viral disease caused by the HSV 11 virus
How soon after exposure does symptoms of HSV 11 generally occur? Within 3 wks of exposure
Signs and symptoms of HSV 11 include? 1. Multiple painful(burning),pruritic vesicles that appear on the genitalia,buttocks, and thighs 2. Dysuria 3. Vaginal Discharge
The active lesions of HSV 11 appear when what is compromised? Immune system
HSV 11 is more easily transmitte when the lesions are? Active
The treatment for outbreaks of genital herpes is? Antiviral Drugs
True or False: There is a cure for Genital Herpes? FALSE-There is NO cure
How many different types of HPV are there? 40 different types
For most, what will defeat the HPV? Immune system
90% of HPV lesions(warts) are caused by how many types of HPV viruses? 2 Types
How soon after exposure may HPV lesions appear? Weeks or Months after sexual exposure
In which locations do the HPV warts commonly appear? 1. Penis and Scrotum in men 2. Perineum in women
The primary symptoms of HPV are? 1. Pruritis 2. Pain
75% of all Cervical malignancies are caused by how many other types of HPV? 2 types
What is the name of the vaccine for the 4 types of HPV? Gardasil(3 doses over 6 mos)
Gardasil is approved for males and females of what age range? Ages 9-26 yrs
Best results occur if Gardasil is administered prior to what? Exposure
Uncircumcised men are how much more likely to be infected with HPV? Three times more likely
Identify the treatment options for HPV? 1. Antiviral medications 2. Electrocautery 3. Cryosurgery
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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