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SS Unit 3 Chapter 8n

Section 3 - notes

home Rome's armies were victorious wherever they went, but problems were building at ------
farmers The gap between the rich partricians and poor plebeians grew, and ----- especially suffered
debt During the 100s B.C., farmers of small plots of land were sinking into poverty and -----
wars many farmers were unable to farm because they were fighting in Rome's ------
invasion Others had suffered damage to their farms during Hannibal's ----- of Itlay
latifundia small farmers could not compete with wealthy Romans who were buying up land to create ---- or large farming estates
labor the Romans who were rich landowners used a new source of ---- the thousands of prisoners brought to Italy during the wars
small by using these enslaved people to tend their crops, wealthy Romans could force ---- farmers out of business
cities faced with debts they could not pay, many framers sold their land and moved to ---- to look for work
jobs ---- were hard to find for the farmers because enslaved people did most of the work
free if --- men were lucky enough to find work, they earned low wages
anger these hard working conditions created widespread ----
riots Roman politicians were worried about ----- breaking out, but they quickly turned the situation to their advantage
entertainment because the romans were worried about riots breaking out, to win votes of the poor, they began providing cheap food and -----
bread and circuses the roman's policy of ---- and ----- helped many dishonest rulers come to power
brothers; reform Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were tow wealthy ----- who tried to ---- Rome's government
farms Rome's government believed that many of Rome's problems were caused by the loss of small -----
rich Rome's government asked the Senate to take back public land from the ---- and divide it among landless Romans
claimed Many senators, however, were among those who had ---- some of these public lands
fought Rome's government put their own interest above the general welfare, they ----- the Gracchus brother's proposals
killed both Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were ---- by senators who opposed their attempts to reform the Roman government
army reform in Rome only worsened as the Roman --- took on a new role
out before the reform, the army had mostly stayed --- of government affairs
Marius things changed in Rome when a military leader named ---- became consul in 107 B.C.
owners before the reform, most of the soldiers were --- of small farms
soldiers now because this type of farmer was disappearing, Marius began to recruit ---- from the poor
land in return for the soldiers service, he paid them wages and promised them ----
paid Marius changed the Roman army from citizen volunteers to ---- professional soliders
duty the new troops , however, were motivated by material rewards rather than a sense of ----
Republic they felt loyal to their general , not to the Roman -----
power Marius's new military system led to new ---- struggles
Sulla Marius faced a challenge from a rival general with his own army, a man named ----
dictator in 82B.C. sulla drove Marius out of rome and declared himself -----
3 Sulla spent --- years reforming the Roman government before resigning from office
what happened after Sulla stepped down from office? men who saw Sulla gain power by using an army decided to follow the same path, and civil wars broke out
armies after Sulla left office, different roman leaders battled for power, supported by their loyal ---
Pompey in 60 B.C. three men were on top: Crassus, -----, and Julius Casear
richest Crassus was a military leader and one of the ---- men in Rome
military Pompey and Caesar were not as rich as Crassus, but both were successful ---- men
first drawing on their wealth and power, Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus, formed the ---- Triumvirate to rule Rome
triumvirate a ---- is a political alliance of three people
military the members of the triumvirate each had ---- command in the republic
Spain Pompey was in ----
Syria Crassus was in -----
Gaul Julius Caesar was in ---- (modern day France)
battled while in Gaul, Caesar ----- foreign tribes and invaded Britain
hero Caesar became a ---- to Rome's lower classes
Sulla senators and others back home in Rome feared that Caesar was becoming too popular and might seize power like ----
Pompey after Crassus was killed in the battle in 53B.C., the Senate decided that --- pompey should return to Itlay and rule alone
Senate in 49 B.C. , the ---- ordered Caesar to give up his army and come home
Rubicon Caesar and his 5,000 soldiers marched into Italy by crossing the ---- , a small river at the southern boundary of his command area
civil by Caesar giving up his army, he knew that he was starting a ---- war that there was no turning back
general because Caesar was a better ----- he drove Pompey out of Italy and then destroyed his army in Greece
dictator; life after defeating Pompey's army, Caesar declared himself ----- of Rome for ---- and made many changes to Rome
citizenship Caesar granted ----- to people living in Rome's territories outside the Italian peninsula
colonies Caesar also started ----- to provide land for the landless
free Caesar also ordered landowners using slave labor to hire more ---- workers
calendar Caesar also created a new ---- with 12 months, 365 days, and a leap year.
Julian Caesar's calendar was called the ----- calendar and it was used throughout Europe until A.D. 1582
Gregorian in 1582 A.D. the calendar was modified slightly and became known as the ----- calendar
Christ The Gregorian calendar, based on the birth of ---- has been used in the U.S. since its beginning and is used by most countries in the world today
enemies while many Romans supported Caesar, he also had many -----
king Caesar's enemies feared that Caesar wanted to be -----
ignored Caesar ----- a famous warning to "beware the Ides of March" (March 15)
44 on that date in ---- B.C., Ceasar's enemies surrounded him and stabbed him to death
What is the origin of the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" and what does it mean? The phrase refers to Caesar's return to Italy. by crossing the Rubicon, Caesar knew he would begin a civil war and that he would either be victorious or be destroyed. today it means passing a point of no return or making a decision you cannot take back.
civil Caesar's death plunged a civil war
forces During the civil war, on one side were ---- led by men who had killed Caesar
generals on the other side during the civil war Caesar's grandnephew Octavian and two of Caesar's top ---- , Antony and Lepidus
Second after defeating Caesar's assassins, these three men created the ----- Triumvirate in 43 B.C.
argue the members of the Second Triumvirate began to ---- immediately
retire Octavian forced Lepidus to ---- from politics and the remaining leaders divided the Roman world between themselves
west Octavian took the ----
Antony took the ----
alliance Antony fell in love with the Egyptian Queen, Cleopatra VII, and formed an ---- with her
war Octavian declared ---- on Antony to keep him from taking over the republic
Actium Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra's forces at the Battle of ----
Roman Empire Octavian laid the foundation for a new system of government the ---- ----
political; against Cicero was a ----- leader, writer, and public speaker who was ---- dictators
representative Cicero favored ---- government and supported Octavian
reforms Octavian restored the republic with some -----
weak Octavian knew that most people favored a republican form of government but he also knew that the republic had been too ---- to solve Rome's problems
senate he gave some power to the ---- but really put himself in charge
Augustus Octavian took the title ---- meaning "revered one" which began the Roman empire
Created by: lyncall
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