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Lecture 13 Wrld Dnsr

Horn-heads and dome-heads

Marginocephalians belong to what group? Ornithiscians
What 2 groups are the marginocephalians split into? Pachycephalsauria (dome, bone-headed) & Ceratopsia (horned)
Early characteristics of the marginocephalians? small-bodied and bipedial
What does "marginocephalian" mean? margin-headed
Which of the two groups of marginocephalia are from the cretaceous of Europe, Asia, and N. America? Also they are found sparsely IF found. Pachycephalosaurus
Other group: Very successful, found in abundant remains in the late cretaceous of N. America and Asia Ceratopsians
Pachycephalosaurs Anatomy: (mr. burns dinosaur) Thickened skull domes (thickened frontals and parietals), bipedal, leaf-shaped/serrated teeth
Ceratopsians anatomy: Frill (made from parietals and squamosal bones), horns
Who is the oldest ceratopsian? Yinlong
Which ceratopsian is small-bodied, bipedal, and nicknamed the "parrot-lizard"? Psittacosaurs
Group of mid-sized ceratopsians who are thought to be bipedal while others of this same group were quadrupedal? Protoceratopsids
Compare protoceratopsids to psittacosaurs protoceratopsids possess longer frills but were shorter. Some had a nasal bump (not a horn). Teeth were more advanced.
Were all ceratopsids considered bipedal? No, they were all quadrupedal.
What kind of teeth system did ceratopsids possess? Complex dental batteries (continuous surface of teeth that were placed in rows so teeth were present when the new were replacing the old.)
What hypotheses have been made about the dome head of the pachycephalosaur? Head-butting, flank butting, sexual or intraspecific display
What has been found in ceratopsians for processing food? Gastrolith, or a gizzard
What has there been much controversy about as far as the ceratopsian's movement? Posture and gait of ceratopsids
What hypotheses have been made about ceratopsian horns and frills? Expanded surface for attachment of large jaw muscles, protection, thermoregulation. The strongest being that the frill is used for display.
What indicates that ceratopsids traveled in herds? Large quantities of ceratopsids in one bonebed.
Created by: Chelseagirl2508
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