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Chapt. 12-13 Vocab

1. Speculation Engagement in business transactions involving considerable risk but offering the chance of large gains.
2. Black Tuesday October 29th, 1929. This is the date of the most famous stock market crash in history. The date is considered the beginning of the Great Depression.
3. Business Cycle A recurrent fluctuation in the total business activity of a country.
4. The Great Depression The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S., roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
5. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act that raised prices on foreign imports to such a degree that it could not compete with American made goods.
6. Bread line Place where people lined up for charities or public agencies to acquire handouts.
7. Hooverville A collection of huts and shacks, as at the edge of a city, housing the unemployed during the 1930s.
8. Tenant Farmer A person who farms the land of another and pays rent with cash or with a portion of the produce.
9. Dust Bowl The region in the South central U.S. that suffered from dust storms in the 1930s. Texas to North Dakota.
10. Okies A migrant worker from Oklahoma, especially during the Great Depression.
11. Repatriation To bring or send back to his or her country or land of citizenship.
12. Localism Where problems could be solved by a local or state level.
13. Reconstruction Finance Corporation Federal agency set up by congress in 1932 to provide emergency government credit to banks, railroads, and other large businesses.
14. Trickle-Down Economics Economic theory that holds that money lent to businesses and banks will trickle down to consumers.
15. Hoover Dam Dam on the Colorado river that was built during the Great Depression.
16. Bonus Army Group of World War I veterans who marched to Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand early payment of a bonus that was promised to them by Congress.
17. New Deal Programs and legislation enacted by Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression to promote economic recovery and social reform.
18. Fireside Chat An informal address by a political leader over radio or television, especially as given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt beginning in 1933.
19. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) A public corporation, established in 1933, that insures, up to a specified amount, all demand deposits of member banks.
20. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Government Agency that built dams in the Tennessee River valley to control flooding and generate electric power.
21. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) New Deal program that provided young men with relief jobs on environmental conservation projects including reforestation and flood control.
22. National Recovery Administration (NRA) New Deal agency that promoted economic recovery by regulating production, prices, and wages.
23. Public Works Administration (PWA) New Deal agency that provided millions of jobs constructing public buildings.
24. Second New Deal Legislative actively begun by Franklin Roosevelt in 1935 to solve problems created by the Great Depression.
25. Works Progress Administration (WPA) Key New Deal agency that provided work relief through various public works projects.
26. Pump Priming Economic theory that favored public works projects because they put money into the hands of consumers who would buy more goods, stimulating the economy.
27. Social Security Act A law passed in 1935 providing old-age retirement insurance, a federal-state program of unemployment compensation, and federal grants for state welfare programs.
28. Wagner Act An act of Congress that forbade any interference by employers with the formation and operation of labor unions.
29. Collective Bargaining Employers had to negotiate with unions about hours, wages, and other working conditions.
30. Fair Labor Standards Act 1938 law that set a minimum wage, a maximum worksheet of 44 hours per week, and a ban of child labor.
31. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Labor organization founded in the 1930s that represented unskilled labor workers.
32. Sit-Down Strikes Labor protest in which workers stop working and occupy the workplace until their demands are met.
33. Court Packing An unsuccessful attempt by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1937 to appoint up to six additional justices to the Supreme Court, to validate a number of his New Deal laws.
34. Black Cabinet Group of African American leaders who served as unofficial advisers to FDR.
35. Indian New Deal 1930s legislation that provided Indians greater control over their affairs and provided funding for schools and hospitals.
36. New Deal Coalition Political force formed by diverse groups who united to support FDR and his New Deal.
37. Welfare State Government that assumes the responsibility for supplying the welfare of the poor, elderly, sick, and unemployed.
38. The Wizard of Oz One of the most memorable depression-era films. It promised audiences that their dreams would come true.
39. War of the Worlds A theater broadcast that was so realistic that people thought Martins were actually invading.
40. Federal Art Project Division of the Works Progress Administration that hired unemployed artists to create artworks for public buildings and sponsored art education programs and exhibitions.
41. Mural A large picture painted directly on a wall or ceiling.
Created by: Adriano_Santos