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Gross Anatomy 2

Abdomen

QuestionAnswer
Splenic artery on the spleen comes from the... Celiac trunk posterior to the pancreas
The splenic vein empties into the... portal system
Nerve innervation of the spleen is via the... celiac plexus (sympathetic)
The gastric impression on the spleen is formed by the... fundus of the stomach
The renal impression on the spleen is formed by the... left kidney
The colic impression on the spleen is formed by the... colic flexure
The 2 surfaces of the spleen are named the... diaphragmatic and visceral surfaces
The spleen is located anterior to the... fundus of the stomach
The spleen is located medial to the... left kidney
The spleen is located posterior to the... diaphragm
The spleen is located superior to the... colic flexure
Where is the spleen located? On the left between ribs 9-11.
What region is the spleen located? The left hypochondriac region.
What organ is the head of the pancreas closely associated with? The duodenum (2nd part).
What is posterior to the neck of the pancreas? The inferior vena cava, where the portal system forms.
What is located posterior to the body of the pancreas? The aorta.
What blood vessel is located superiorly to the body of the pancreas? The celiac trunk.
What blood vessel is located inferiorly to the body of the pancreas? The superior mesenteric artery.
Which organ is located posteriorly to the body of the pancreas? The left kidney.
Nerve innervation to the pancreas is via the... celiac plexus and vagus (vasomotor)
Which vessels branch off the superior mesenteric artery? The posterior and anterior branches of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
Which artery gives rise to the pancreaticoduodenal arteries? The gasteroduodenal artery.
Which 2 vessels branch off the splenic artery? The dorsal and great pancreatic arteries.
The sternal costal hiatus allows for passage of... internal thoracic arteries, anterior branch of the phrenic nerve, vena comitantes, and some lymphatic vessels
The vertebral origin of the diaphragm arises from... body of L2, TVP of L1 and body of the 12th rib
On the left vertebral origin of the diaphram is... the upper bodies of L2-3
On the right, the vertebral origin of the diaphragm is... the upper bodies of L3-4
At what vertebral level is the aortic hiatus located? T12
What forms the aortic hiatus? the right and left crus legs
The esophageal hiatus is formed at what level? T10
What forms the esophageal hiatus? The right crus forming a weak sphincter.
What passes through the medial arcuate ligament? Psoas muscle.
What passes through the lateral arcuate ligament? Quadratus lumborum.
What passes through the aortic hiatus? The aorta and the thoracic duct.
What passes through the esophageal hiatus? The esophagus, both vagal trunks, esophageal arteries and left gastric arteries.
What innervates the diaphragm? sensory via the intercostal nerves and motor via the right and left phrenic nerves (C3, 4 and 5)
What actions does the diaphragm perform? respiration, defecation, vomiting, urination and parturation.
At what vertebral level does the caval opening occur? T8 (9)
The right hypochondriac region contains... liver, gall bladder and right colic flexure
epigastric region contains... stomach and another part of the liver
The left hypochondriac region contains... spleen and left colic flexure
The right lumbar region contains... the ascending colon
The umbilical region contains... small intestine
The left lumbar region contains... the descending colon
The hypogastric region contains... the anal canal
The right inguinal region contains... the appendix and the small and large intestine junction
The left inguinal region contains... the sygmoidal colon
What is the name of the superficial abdominal fascia? Camper's or fatty fascia
What is the name of the deep abdominal fascia? Membranous or Scarpa's fascia
What is the origin of the rectus abdominis muscle? Symphysis pubis and pubic crest
What is the insertion of the rectus abdominis muscle? xiphoid process, tendonous insertions, costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
What innervates the rectus abdominis muscle? Anterior rami of T5-12
What are the actions of the rectus abdominis muscle? Flexion of the vertebral column, increases abdominal pressure, depresses the rib cage and elevates the pelvis
What is the origin of the pyramidalis muscle? The body of the pubic bone
What is the insertion of the pyramidalis muscle? The linea alba
What is the action of the pyramidalis muscle? Tenses the linea alba
What nerve innervates the pyramidalis muscle? Subcostal nerve of T12
What is the origin of the external oblique muscle? External ribs 5-12
What is the insertion of the external oblique muscle? Pubic bone, anterior half of the iliac crest and anterior rectus sheath
What is the action of the external oblique muscle? Bilateral-flexion of the spine and unilateral-rotation of the spine
What is the innervation of the external oblique muscle? Anterior rami of T7-11, subcostal nerve and ilioinguinal nerve
What is the origin of the internal oblique muscle? Thoracal-lumbar fascia, lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament and iliac crest
What is the insertion of the internal oblique muscle? Pubic bone, inferior border of ribs T10-12
What is the innervation of the internal oblique muscle? Anterior rami of T7-11, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
What are the actions of the internal oblique muscle? Same as external oblique
What is the origin of the transverse abdominis muscle? Lateral 1/3 of the inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracal lumbar fascia and internal surfaces of the lower 6 costal cartilages
What is the insertion of the transverse abdominis muscle? Pubic bone, pubic crest and linea alba
What is the action of the transverse abdominis muscle? Increase abdominal pressure
What innervates the transverse abdominis muscle? T7-12, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
The anterior rectus sheath originates and inserts... from the xiphoid to the symphysis pubis
At the arcuate ligament, what muscles form the anterior rectus sheath? External and internal oblique
Where does the anterior rectus sheath formed by all 3 lateral muscles of the abdominal wall? Half way in between the umbilical fold
What forms the posterior rectus sheath? Internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles
Where does the posterior rectus sheath end? Arcuate line
Where does the superior epigastric vein originate from? Internal thoracic which originates from the subclavian
Where does the lateral thoracic vein originate from? thoracoepigastric, then superficial epigastric, then femoral vein
How does the superior epigastric vein connect to the femoral vein? Via the inferior epigastric vein
Created by: chirojeremy