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Civics Ch.19


civil liberties protections against the govt, guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from arbitrary acts of govt Ex. freedom of religion, speech & press, and the guarantee of a fair trial
civil rights positive acts of govt that seek to make constitutional guarantees a reality for all people Ex. prohibitions of discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religious belief, or national origin, set out in Civil rights act of 1964
alien people who arent citizens of the country where they live
Due Process Clause - Found in 14th amendment - states, "No state shall...deprive any person, of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law
process of incorporation process that incorporated--merged, combined--most of the guarantees in the Bill of Rights into the 14th Amendment's Due Process Clause
Establishment Clause separates church and state; an "establishment of religion"
parochial church-related (schools, in this topic)
Free Exercise Clause guarantees to each person the right to believe whatever he or she chooses to believe in matters of religion
libel written lies (L for literature)
slander spoken lies (S for speech)
sedition the crime of attempting to overthrow the govt by force or to disrupt its lawful activities
seditious speech the advocating, or urging of sedition
prior restraint the govt cant curb ideas before they are expressed
shield law laws that give reporters some protection against having to disclose their sources or reveal other confidential information in legal proceedings in those States
symbolic speech expression by conduct; communicating ideas through facial expressions, body language, or by carrying a sign or wearing an arm band
picketing patrolling of a business site by workers who are on strike; picketers attempt 2 inform the public of the controversy, and 2 persuade others not to deal with the firm involved. form of expression, protected by the 1st and 14th amendments if peaceful
assemble to gather with one another, to express views on public matters
content neutral the govt may not regulate assemblies on the basis on what might might be said
right of association guarantees include the right to associate with others to promote political, economical, and other social clauses
Judiciary Act of 1789 judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as Congress saw fit to establish
Full Faith & Credit Clause all states must recognize and give validity to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state
Privileges & Immunities no state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents & non-residents
Lemon test three parts: (1)the purpose of the aid must be clearly secular, not religious; (2)its primary effect must neither advance nor inhibit religion; and (3)it must avoid an "excessive entanglement of government with religion"
Created by: johndude