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OC CH 10 Expansion

OC CH 10 Expanding West

QuestionAnswer
1. Why did "mountain men" travel westward in the early 1800's? (CH 10.1) in search of wealth and adventure, they were traveling to new fur trapping areas because most of the beaver population had been wiped out in the East because of high demand for the popular "high hat" which was made out of beaver fur
2. Why did American settlers move to the Pacific Northwest? (CH 10.1) The climate and soil were great for farming
3. What were some of the challenges facing American pioneers? (CH 10.1) Lack of supplies, food, and water; treacherous trails; wild animals; extreme weather conditions
4. What are some of the details about the Oregon Trail? (CH 10.1) A 2,000 mile-long trail which took about 6 months to travel; forked across the Rocky Mountains; ended in Oregon and California
5. What are some of the details about the Santa Fe Trail? (CH 10.1) Ancient trading route used by Native Americans; long trip across blazing deserts and rough mountains;could be highly profitable for traders
6. What are some of the details about the Mormons, and why did they travel to the West? (CH 10.1) Moved west in the early 1830s to escape persecution for their religious beliefs; founded by Joseph Smith; also known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints; teachings written in the Book of Mormon; settled in Utah, led by Brigham Young
7. Who was Brigham Young? (CH 10.1) Leader of the Mormons after Joseph Smith was murdered; helped the society prosper and grow; helped establish the standard for western water rights in which the needs of the community had priority over the individual
8. Who was Father Miguel Hildalgo y Costilla? (CH 10.2) He was a Catholic priest who led a rebellion in 1810 of about 80,000 American Indians and mestizos against the Spanish monarchy; the revolt failed, but his efforts inspired the rebellion that led to Mexican independence
9. Who was Stephen F. Austin? (CH 10.2) He was an American "empresario" hired by the Mexican govt. to attract American settlers to Texas; he had a successful colony of about 300 American families; was made secretary of state when Texas gained its independence
10. Who were "empresarios"? (CH 10.2) Agents hired by the Mexican government to bring settlers to Texas; they were paid in land; Stephen F. Austin was one
11. What was the main reason for the conflict between the Mexican government and American settlers in Texas? (CH 10.2) Settlers in Texas were not obeying Mexican laws - Specifically, they were bringing slaves even though slavery was illegal in Mexico
12. What was the significance of the Battle of the Alamo? (CH 10.2) Even though the Texans were beaten, "Remember the Alamo!" and the battle helped inspire Sam Houston and his troops to overcome Gen. Santa Anna and the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto
13. Who was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna? (CH 10.2) He was a Mexican general who took control of Mexico, suspending its republican constitution and making himself dictator; he and his troop fought against Texas rebels at the Alamo and the Battle of San Jacinto; forced to grant Texas independence
14. What happened at the Battle of San Jacinto? (CH 10.2) On the afternoon of April 21, 1836, Sam Houston's troops of Texas rebels surrounded and attacked the Mexican army; Gen. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign a piece of paper that granted Texas its independence
15. Why didn't President Andrew Jackson want to annex Texas? (CH 10.2) He did not want to upset the balance of slave vs. free states in the Union by adding Texas as a slave state
16. Why did Mexicans call Texas a "stolen province"? (CH 10.3) The territory was was claimed by Mexico until American settlers moved in and fought to claim the land as their own
17. What is another of saying "manifest destiny" (CH 10.3) "obvious fate" - The idea that it was Americans God-given right to settle and spread democracy all the way west to the Pacific Ocean
18. What did Americans mean by "Fifty-four or fight!"? (CH 10.3) They wanted the border between U.S. lands and British lands in Oregon Territory to extend to the 54-40' N. latitude line; in 1846 the two countries agreed the border would be the 49th parallel (neither side wanted to fight a war over the land)
19. What happened to the California mission system after Mexico gained independence from Spain? (CH 10.3) Mexico ended the mission system, and thousands of acres of ranch lands were given to some of the wealthiest California settlers, such as Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo and other Californios
20. Who were the "Californios" and who was Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo? (CH 10.3) They were early Mexican settlers in California; they felt little connection to the faraway Mexican government in Mexico City; had a reputation for hospitality and skilled horse riding; Vallejo was a Californio, the richest man in CA and active in CA govt.
21. What are some of the details about the Bear Flag Revolt? (CH 10.3) A small group of armed Americans kidnapped Mariano Vallejo, seized the town of Sonoma, and declared California's independence
22. What started the Mexican-American War? (CH 10.3) April 1846, General Zachary Taylor's troops clashed with the Mexican army at the Rio Grande; President Polk said Mexico has crossed into U.S. territory and attacked, and Congress voted to declare war on Mexico
23. What are the details of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? (CH 10.3) Signed in 1848, it officially ended the Mexican-American War and increased the size of the U.S. by almost 25%, adding the areas that became CA, NV, UT, AZ, and parts of CO and WY; the U.S. paid Mexico $15 for the land
24. What is the Mexican Cession? (CH 10.3) This is the name for the lands Mexico turned over to the U.S. according to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; it totaled over 500,000 square miles, and was most of Mexico's northern lands including areas in 7 states
25. What was the significance of the Gadsden Purchase? (CH 10.3) The U.S. received the southern parts of what are now AZ and NM, and this added the last piece of land to complete what are now the current borders of the continental United States
26. What was a positive result of the mixing of various cultures in the American Southwest? (CH 10.3) Americans learned valuable knowledge and skills from the Mexicans and Native Americans, such as mining techniques, new ranching equipment, and adobe brick-making
27. What was Brigham Young's idea about how to solve water rights issues in the West? (CH 10.3) The good of the community should outweigh the interests of individuals; this helped set the standard to water laws in the West
28. What lesson might a western pioneer have learned from the story of the Donner Party? (CH 10.4) Stay on the trail - There are no good shortcuts!
29. Who were the "forty-niners"? (CH 10.4) About 80,000 gold-seekers from California and other countries who migrated to California in 1849
30. What were the effects of the Gold Rush years? (CH 10.4) A huge increase in the population of California, around 800 in March 1848 to more than 25,000 by 1850
31. What group of immigrants suffered discrimination because of increased competition during the Gold Rush? (CH 10.4) Chinese immigrants
32. What effect did the Gold Rush have on the population of California? (CH 10.4) Immigrants flocked to CA in search of gold,then stayed and established a frontier society and new cities and towns
33. Why was California eligible to become a state in 1850 (after the Gold Rush years)? (CH 10.4) They were enough people in the territory to qualify it as a state
34. Why is Sutter's Mill an important location of the Gold Rush? (CH 10.4) It was the sawmill in Sacramento, CA owned by John Sutter where gold was found in Jan. 1848 and started the California Gold Rush
35. What are three ways (with examples) the United States acquired territory during the period of western expansion? (From various past chapters) Through agreement (purchased the Louisiana Territory from France); through force (Indian Removal Act - Trail of Tears); through warfare (Mexican-American War)
Created by: enid.robert