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EOC Ch. 15 Immigr.

Immigrants and Urbanization

Ellis Island primary immigration station on the east coast
Angel Island primary immigration station on the west coast
melting pot mixture of people of different cultures and races blended together by abandoning native languages and customs
nativism overt favoritism to one's home country
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Congressional Act banning entry to America for all Chinese who were not students, teachers, merchants, tourists, or government officials
Gentlemen's Agreement agreement made by U.S. and Japanese officials limiting emigration of Japanese unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for repeal of the San Francisco segregation order
urbanization growth of cities
Americanization Movement social campaign designed to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominant culture
tenements often overcrowded and unsanitary multifamily urban dwellings
mass transit systems transport systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
Social Gospel Movement reform program preaching salvation through service to the poor
settlement houses community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, especially immigrants
Jane Addams one of the most influential members of the Settlement House movement who founded Chicago's Hull House in 1889
political machine an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city
graft the illegal use of political influence for personal gain
Boss Tweed influential and corrupt leader of New York's Tammany Hall machine in the late 1860's
patronage the giving of government jobs to people who have helped a political candidate get elected
civil service government administration
James Garfield U.S. president assassinated by a deranged office seeker; his death spurred the creation of the U.S. civil service
Pendleton Civil Service Act created a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on examination, not patronage
Created by: willsong