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8th Grade US History - Important People

John Smith saved Jamestown by implementing the "work or starve rule"
John Rolfe made Jamestown prosperous by growing tobacco. Married Pcahontas which helped relations between the settlers and the Native Americans
William Penn Quaker who founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers. Pennsylvania had a democratic form of government
Roger Williams started Rhode Island after he was kicked out of Massachusetts, believed in the separation of church and state
Thomas Hooker founded Connecticut, aided in the adoption of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, favored voting rights for all men regardless of religious or property qualifications
James Oglethorpe founded Georgia as a place for debtors
Lord Baltimore founded Maryland as a safe haven for Catholics
Samuel Adams founded the Sons of Liberty and Committees of correspondence. He was a leading patriot from Massachusetts and the mastermind behind the Boston Tea Party
Crispus Attucks former slave killed during the Bonton Massacre
James Armistead African American who served in the Revolutionary War for GW, enclisted as a patriotic spy pretending to be a runaway slave to gain British war secrets
King George III British monarch during the American Revolution, issued the Proclamation of 1763
Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense to encourage colonists to break away from Britain and The Crisis to encourage Continental soldiers to fight, he penned the famous line, "These are the times that try men's souls."
William Blackstone British attorney and philosopher that had a great influence on the Founding Fathers of the U.S. He taught that man is granted fundamental rights by God. He is famous for writing Classic Commentaries on the Laws of England.
John Locke English philosopher who believed in the protection of individual rights including life, liberty, and property. He believed that if government does not protect the people's rights, then they have a right to revolt. His work inspired and influenced Jeffer
Baron Charles de Montesquleu French nobleman famous for his ideas on government and law. He write The Spirit of the Laws proposing 3 separate branches of government so no one person or groups of people in government would have too much power.
Baron Charles de Montesquleu (2) He inspired James Madison to defend the separation of powers and checks and balances principles in the Federalists Papers.
George Washington commander of the Continental Army, First President of the U.S., Known as the Father of our Country, set many precedents including a farewell address when he warned against political parties and urged Americans to stay neutral
John Adams member of the Continental Congress, was on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence, served as GW's Vice President, 2nd President of U.S. Served during the XYZ affair, passed Allen and Sedition Acts, nominated John Marshall
Abigail Adams wife of John Adams, mother ot John Quincy Adams. Advised her husband on a number of political issues. Her letters to John Adams became a source of information about the American Revolution and early American history
Thomas Jefferson primary author of the Declaration of Independence, founder of the Democratic-Republican Party, Secretary of State under George Washington, VP under John Adams, and 3rd President of the U.S., passed the Embargo Act, responsible for the Louisiana Purchase
Thomas Jefferson (2) sent Lewis & Clark to explore Lousiana territory
Marquis de Lafayette Frenchmen who believed in the Patriot cause. He aided the Patriots with the money and supplies. He became a close friend and advisor to George Washington.
Haym Salomon Jewish immigrant who played an important financial role during the American Revolution. He was a patriot and member of the Sons of Liberty. Arrested as a spy by the British and hanged.
Baron von Stuben German who helped train the Patriots at Valley Forge
Mercy Otis Warren She was a patriot who wrote plays, poems and essays supporting the idea of independence.
General Cornwallis British General, surrendered to GW at the Battle of Yorktown
John Paul Jones American Naval hero who famously said, "I have not yet begun to fight!"
Patrick Henry Patriot from Virginia, famously said, "Give me Liberty or Give me Death!" he became an outspoken Anti-Federalist because the Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights, known as a great orator (speaker)
Wentworth Cheswell Grandson to the first African American land owner, founding father, very active in public life, influential town leader, judge, and soldier in the American Revolution.
Benjamin Franklin Proposed the Albany Plan of Union which would have united the colonies under one government. He helped secure French aid during the American Revolution. He was a writer, printer, diplomat, and inventor.
Benjamin Franklin (2) He helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution.
Bernardo de Galvez Spaniard who sided with the Americans during the Revolutionary War. Provided weapons, gunpowder, clothing, and other supplies to help the colonial army. Galveston, Texas is named in his honor.
Alexander Hamilton autor of some of The Federalist Papers, Founder of the Federalist Party, & Secretary of Treasury under George Washington, created the National Bank, killed by Aaron Burr in a duel
George Mason outspoken Anti-Federalist from Virginia that worked against the ratification of the Constitution.
James Madison "Father of the Constitution", helped write the Federalist Papers, helped frame the Bill of Rights, and 4th President of the U.S. The War of 1812 is often referred to "Mr. Madison's war"
John Marshall 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; helped establish the idea of judicial review that made the Supreme Court far more powerful, his famous court cases include Marbury v Madison, McCullough v Maryland, and Gibbons v Ogden
Lewis & Clark explorers of the Louisiana Territory
Sacajawea Native American who helped Lewis & Clark while they explored the Louisiana Territory
Francis Scott Key author of the star spangled banner
James Monroe 5th President of the U.S. during the Era of Good Feelings. Issued the Monroe Doctrine which became important to the U.S. foreign policy
John Quincy Adams 6th President of the U.S., helped negotiate the Adams-Onis Treaty. Won the election of 1824 known as the "corrupt bargain" when Henry Clay convinced the House of Reps. to elect J.Q.A. and in return Clay would become Sec. of State.
Eli Whitney inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts
Robert Fulton invented a new type of steamboat that could move against the current or wind (Clermont)
Andrew Jackson 7th President of the U.S.; started the present day Democratic Party. Portrayed as a "common man."
Andrew Jackson (2) His Indian Removal Act led to the Trail of Tears, Kitchen Cabinet, Nullification Crisis (Tariff of Abominations), Bank Crisis, ignored Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v Georgia
Cherokee Indians Indian tribe who hoped that adopting white culture prevent conflicts.
Cherokee Indians (2) Refused to move west when gold was discovered on their land, but were forced to move even after the Supreme Court ruled in Worcester v Georgia that they could keep their land resulting in the Trail of Tears.
John C. Calhoun U.S. Representative and Senator from South Carolina, VP under Andrew Jackson. He was a strong supporter of states' rights. His beliefs led to Nullification Crisis of 1828.
Daniel Webster Senator from Massachusetts, known for his strong desire to preserve the Union and stance against nullification. He is quoted as saying, "Liberty and Union now and forever, one and inseparable."
Henry Clay The "Great Compromiser" from Kentucky. He authored the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. He also introduced the American System which was a plan to improve roads and canals.
Frederick Douglass Leading African American abolitionist. He was a former slave who became a famous speaker and writer. He published a newspaper called "The North Star"
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Leader of women's rights movement. She and Lucretia Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention. She authored the Declaration of Sentiments.
Susan B. Anthony a reformer that worked in the abolitionist and temperance movement and dedicated her life to the women's suffrage movement. She and Elizabeth Cady Stanton established the National American Women Suffrage Association
Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalist who protested the Mexican-American War by not paying his taxes. He explained his reasoning in his famous essay, Civil Disobedience.
Hudson River School artists a group of artists that primarily painted landscapes that showed the history and beauty of America. Their name came from the subject of many of their paintings - the Hudson River valley
John James Audubon member of the Hudson River School known as a naturalist specializing in painting the birds of America
Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States of America. Argued that succession was a "necessity" not a "choice"
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the U.S. during the Civil War. Famously gave the Gettysburg Address and issued the Emancipation Proclamation. He was later assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
Robert E. Lee Commander of the Confederate troops from Virginia
Ulysses S. Grant Commander of the Union troops. General Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House ending the Civil War, later becomes the 18th U.S. President
Hiram Rhodes Revels Methodist minister who served as a chaplain in the Union army, became the first African American elected to the U.S. Senate
Phillip Bazaar a Chilean immigrant and resident of Massachusetts, member of the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his bravery during the Civil War in 1865
William Carney former slave who enlisted in the all African American 54th Massachusetts regiment during the Civil War. He is the 1st African American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson famous Confederate General known for his courageous ability to face an opposing army like a "stonewall"