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Dse of Digestive Sys

Diseases of the Digestive System

Oral neoplasms commonly occur where? 1. Floor of the oral cavity 2. Tongue 3. Inferior oral labia
Pipe and cigar smoking is often associated with what type of carcinoma? Labial carcinoma
Carcinomas of the buccae,tongue, or palate are typically associated with? Chewing tobacco or dipping
A premalignant sign of an oral neoplasm is? Leukoplakia
How is Dx of an oral neoplasm confirmed? Biopsy(Bx)
Oral neoplasms respond well to what types of treatment? Surgery and radiation therapy
Signs and Symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 1. Dysphagia 2. Vomiting 3. Halitosis 4. WT Loss 5. Aphagia
Methods of Diagnosis for esophageal malignancy include? Upper Gastrointestinal(UGI)-AKA Barium Swallow
Why is the prognosis(Px)for esophageal malignancy poor? The disease usually metastasizes prior to detection
What is the name for inflammation of the esophagus? Esophagitis
Esophagitis is commonly caused by? GERD(Gastroesophageal Reflux Dse)
What causes GERD? An incompetent Cardiac Sphincter which allows stomach contents to regurgitate up the esophagus
Signs and Symptoms of GERD? 1. Dyspepsia 2. Eructation 3. Dysphagia 4. Halitosis 5. Hematemesis 6. Thoracodynia
Signs and Symptoms of GERD may be exacerbated by? 1. Eating 2. Drinking 3. Bending over 4. Lying Down
GERD is more common with which conditions? 1. Obesity 2. Pregnancy
How is Dx of GERD confirmed? EGD (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy)
Tx for GERD includes? 1. Non-irritating diet 2. Antacids 3. Antiulcer drugs
What is a Hiatal Hernia(HH)? A protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm
A Hiatal Hernia is AKA? Diaphragmatic Hernia
Signs and Symptoms of a Hiatal Hernia? 1. Dyspepsia 2. Postprandial dyspepsia 3. SOB
A Hiatal Hernia may cause the cardiac sphincter to become incompetent causing what? GERD
Dx of a Hiatal Hernia is typically confirmed with? 1. CXR 2. UGI(Barium Swallow)
Treatment for a Hiatal Hernia include? 1. Avoidance of spicy foods,ETOH,and Caffeine 2. WT Loss (for obese patients) 3. Abdominal Supports 4. Hernioplasty
What is inflammation of the stomach frequently accompanied by hematemesis? Gastritis
Name the list of irritants which can cause Gastritis? 1. NSAIDS 2. Caffeine 3. Tobacco 4. Spicy Food 5. Alcohol 6. Infection
Dx of Gastritis is confirmed by? 1. Gastroscopy 2. Bx
Signs and Symptoms of Gastritis include? 1. LUQ Abdominal pain 2. Hematemesis
Tx of Gastritis includes? 1. Removal of irritants 2. Antacids 3. Anti-ulcer Drugs
How do Antacids work? Neutralize the Hydrochloric Acid in the stomach
What is the purpose of Anti-ulcer drugs? To decrease the amount of acid produced in the stomach
What is Peptic Ulcer Disease(PUD)? An ulcer(erosion)of the stomach and/or duodenum
What is the primary symptom of PUD? Abdominal Pain
What can temporarily relieve the pain caused by PUD? 1. Antacids 2. Food
Name the causes of PUD? 1. Poorly controlled stress 2. Excessive production of HCl 3. NSAIDs 4. H. Pylori
Tx of PUD includes? 1. Stress Management 2. Reduction of irritants 3. Anti-ulcer drugs 4. Antacids 5. Antibiotic therapy *Not Tx by drinking milk*
Identify the complications of PUD? 1. Ulcer Perforation 2. Hemorrhage
Signs of a perforation include? 1. Extreme Abdominal Pain 2. Hematemesis 3. Melena
A complication of ulcer perforation includes? Peritonitis
How is an ulcer perforation treated? With Surgery
Dx of Peptic Ulcer Disease is made by? Barium Swallow
What is Gastroenteritis? An inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
Identify the causes of Gastroenteritis? 1. Bacterial Infections (E.coli,Salmonella,listeria) 2. Chemical Toxins 3. Lactose Intolerance 4. Other Food Allergies 4.
Signs and Symptoms of Gastroenteritis include? 1. Colicky dysentery 2. N&V 3. Pyrexia 4. Diarrhea
Dx of Gastroenteritis is confirmed with? Stool Cx (culture)
How is Gastroenteritis treated? 1. IV hydration 2. Antibiotics 3. Antiemetics 4. Antidiarrheals 5. GI Antispasmodics
What is Salmonellosis? A food poisoning caused by an enterobacteria called salmonella
How soon after ingestion of salmonellosis tainted food does gastroenteritis occur? 6 to 48 hrs after
How is Dx of Salmonellosis confirmed? Stool Cx
How long can the symptoms of Salmonellosis last? Up to 2 weeks
The main complication of Salmonellosis is? Dehydration
Prevention of Salmonellosis includes? 1. Proper refrigeration of foods 2. Thorough cooking of foods 3. Prevent cross contamination of food 4. Proper frequent hand washing
Gastric malignancies are more common in? Men over age 55
What are the signs and symptoms of Gastric Malignancy? 1. Anorexia 2. Dyspepsia 3. N&V 4. PA(Pernicious Anemia)caused by Vit B-12 deficiency 5. Achlorhydria(No HCl in the stomach)
Dx of Gastric Malignancy is confirmed by? 1. Gastroscopy 2. Bx
What factors increase the risk of Gastric Malignancies? 1. H. pylori infection of stomach 2. Consumption of dried,smoked,salted,or preserved foods 3. Diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables 4. Chronic Gastritis 5. Family History of gastric malignancy
What are the treatment options for Gastric Malignancies? 1. Chemotherapy 2. Radiation therapy 3. Surgery
Prognosis is good for Gastric malignancy if detected before? Metastasis
Inflammation of the appendix is? Appendicitis
Signs and Symptoms of Appendicitis include? 1. N&V 2. Pyrexia 3. Leukocytosis 4. Right inguinal rebound tenderness
How is Appendicitis treated? By Appendectomy
Identify complications of appendicitis? 1. Gangrene(putrifaction or rot) 2. Appendorrhexis(rupture of appendix) 3. Peritonitis(Inflamm of abdominal lining)
What Dse is known as the inability to absorb fat from the small intestine? Malabsorption Syndrome
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool to become? 1. Unformed 2. Fatty 3. Pale 4. Pungent 5. Floaters
What is a complication of Malabsorption Syndrome? Inability to absorb the fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K
Deficiency of Vit K can cause? Bleeding tendencies
How is Malabsorption Syndrome treated? Injectable vitamin A, D, E,and K supplements
What is Diverticulitis? Inflammation of the diverticula
What are diverticula? Blister-like pouches or sacs that develop in the large intestine
The primary symptoms of Diverticulitis is? LLQ cramp-like abdominal pain
Complications of Diverticulitis are? 1. Bowel Obstruction(Ileus) 2. Abscesses(collection of pus)
How is Diagnosis of Diverticulitis confirmed? By Barium Enema(AKA: Lower GI)
Treatment of Diverticulitis includes? 1. Antibiotics 2. Increase fiber in diet 3. Decrease intake of gas forming foods
Crohn's Disease(AKA Regional Enteritis) is? A chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory bowel disease
True or False: Crohn's Disease(CD) typically runs in families? TRUE
What is the Age range where Crohn's Disease is usually made? Between 20-40
Signs and Symptoms of Crohn's Dse include? 1. Appendicitis-like pain 2. Alternating bloody diarrhea and constipation 3. Melena 4. Anorexia 5. N&V 6. WT Loss
Confirmation of a Crohn's Diagnosis is made by? 1. Colonoscopy 2. Bx
Periods of exacerbation and remission are common with CD and some cases end in? Perforation(rip/tear) or Ileus(bowel obstruction)
Tx of CD includes? 1. Immunosuppresant Medications 2. SAIDs(prednisone) 3. Antibiotics
What is Chronic Ulcerative Colitis(UC)? An idiopathic inflammatory bowel disorder which usually affects the colon and rectum
UC increases the risk of what type of malignancies? Colon
Ulcerative Colitis may be exacerbated by? Poorly Controlled Stress
True or False: UC usually does not run in families? False-It is hereditary
Most cases of UC occur in? Young Adults(especially women)between ages of 15-20.
Identify the Signs and Symptoms of UC? 1. Sudden diarrhea with pus and blood 2. Cramp-like pain in lower abdomen 3. Anemia from chronic blood loss
Diagnosis of UC is confirmed by? 1. Colonoscopy 2. Barium Enema(AKA: Lower GI)
Identify the treatments for UC? 1. Lialda(mesalamine) 2. Stress Management 3. Mild Sedation 4. Corticosteroids 5. Psychological counseling 6. Colostomy
Where are most malignancies of the large bowel located? Rectum or Sigmoid Colon
How is Dx of Colorectal malignancies confirmed? 1. DRE(Digital Rectal Exam) 2. Sigmoidoscopy or Colonoscopy 3. Bx
If detected early, Colorectal malignancies respond well to what type of treatment? Surgery
Early Signs and Symptoms of colorectal carcinoma include? 1. Change in bowel habits 2. Abdominal discomfort 3. Occult(hidden)blood in stool or Melena 4. Anemia
What two methods aid in early detection of colorectal malignancy? 1. Regular Physical Exam 2. Regular Stool Guaiac(hemoccult)tests
List the risk factors for colorectal malignancies? 1. Long-standing UC 2. Polyps 3. A diet rich in red meat and fat/Low in fiber 4. Deficient Calcium in the diet
What is the prevalence of death from colorectal cancer? 2nd most common cause of death from cancer(Lung Ca is #1 most common)
ACS(American Cancer society)recommends the following at age 50? 1. Colonoscopy every 10yrs 2. Sigmoidoscopy every 5yrs 3. BaE(barium enema)every 5yrs 4. Virtual Colonoscop every 5yrs 5. Stool Guaiac Test every year
A bowel obstruction is AKA? Ileus
What is a paralytic ileus? Ileus caused by a reduction of peristaltic activity
What is it called when an ileus is caused by the bowel twisting on itself? A Volvulus (kinked like a garden hose)
What is an intussusception? An ileus caused when the intestine telescopes on itself(a sock turned partially inside out)
An ileus can also be caused by adhesions which are? Areas of tissue which are sticking together
Signs and Symptoms of an ileus include? 1. Severe abdominal pain 2. Distended abdomen 3. Vomiting and Constipation
How is diagnosis of ileus confirmed? Abdominal CT
Identify what is involved in the Tx of an ileus? Laparoscopic bowel resection
Spastic colon is AKA? Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)
IBS typically affects? Women between their late teens and early 40's
Signs and Symptoms of IBS are? 1. Sudden Diarrhea 2. Constipation 3. Abdominal Pain 4. Flatulence *Symptoms tend to worsen with poorly controlled stress*
What is the difference between IBS and other intestinal disorders? No lesions are present on examination (with IBS)
IBS is a disorder of? 1. Motility 2. Intestinal wall muscle spasms(involuntary)
How is IBS treated? 1. Increasing fiber in diet 2. Avoiding caffeine,fatty foods,spicy foods,ETOH,citrus,cabbage,and legumes 3. Stress Management 4. GI Antispasmodics 5. Antidiarrheals 6. Sedatives
What is the name for chronic degeneration of the liver? Cirrhosis
Identify the causes of Cirrhosis? 1. Alcohol(ETOH) 2. HBV(Hepatitis B Virus)or HCV(Hep.C Virus) 3. Drugs such as Tylenol and Antihyperlipidemics(lipitor)
How is Dx of Cirrhosis confirmed? Liver Bx
Signs and Symptoms of advanced Cirrhosis include? 1. Tremors 2. Somnolence 3. Mental Confusion 4. Gynecomastia(breast development in males) 5. Loss of chest hair 6. Testicular Atrophy 7. Splenomegaly 8. Hepatomegaly
Signs and Symptoms of advanced Cirrhosis(cont'd)? 9. Dilated abdominal veins 10. Tendency to hemorrhage 11. Pedal Edema 12. Esophageal Varices 13. Jaundice 14. Ascites 15. Hepatic Coma
What components are used to confirm Dx of Cirrhosis? 1. LFT's(Liver Function Tests) 2. Liver Bx
What Blood tests are considered LFT's? 1. SGOT(AST) 2. SGPT(ALT) 3. Alkaline phosphatase(Alk.Phos. or ALP) 4. LDH(LD) 5. Bilirubin
What is Viral Hepatitis? An inflammation of the liver caused by a family of viruses called Hepatitis A,B,C,D,and E
How is Hepatitis A transmitted? Through Feces(stool) *HAV is LEAST serious type*
How soon after exposure to HAV do signs and symptoms occur? Usually 2-7 weeks after exposure and typically lasts 2 months
Name the signs and symptoms of HAV? 1. Fatigue 2. Anorexia 3. RUQ abdominal pain 4. Cephalalgia 5. Diarrhea 6. Darkened Urine 7. Nausea 8. Pale Stools 9. Myalgias 10. Low Grade Pyrexia 11. Jaundice
Prognosis for HAV is good because? There is no permanent liver damage and there is a lasting immunity
What are the names of available HAV immunizations? 1. Havrix 2. Vaqta
The Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)can lead to what conditions? 1. Chronic Hepatitis 2. Cirrhosis
Signs and Symptoms of HBV typically appear how long after exposure? 2 to 6 months
Signs and Symptoms of HBV are similar to? HAV
Identify the modes of transmission for HBV? 1. Parenterally 2. Sexually 3. Perinatally
Parenteral transmission usually refers to? Needle sticks and exposure to certain body fluids
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? 1. Blood or anything with blood in it 2. Synovial(joint)fluid 3. Pleural(lung)fluid 4. CSF(cerebrospinal fluid)during a LP(lumbar puncture) 5. Peritoneal(abdominal)fluid 6. Amniotic fluid 7. Breast milk
True of False: Carriers of HBV can be Asymptomatic? TRUE
Fulminating Hepatitis where the patient can suddenly become comatose and die may occur as a result of? Damage from the HBV
How can a lasting immunity be achieved for HBV? 1. Vaccination 2. Contracting the disease and recovering completely
True or False: Everyone can completely recover from HBV, and therefore there are no carriers of the disease? FALSE-Only some people will not completely recover from HBV and will be carriers
What is the treatment for HBV? Antiviral therapy
Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis C Virus are similar to? HAV and HBV
Which Hepatitis virus is considered insidious? HCV
The incubation period may take up to how long to damage the liver significantly? 20-30 years
What percentage of people with HCV are asymptomatic? 70%
What percentage of people with HCV will develop cirrhosis and/or liver cancer? 80%
Which Hepatitis Virus is the #1 reason for a person to need a liver transplant? Hepatitis C Virus(HCV)
Identify the means of transmission for HCV? 1. Parenterally 2. Sexually 3. Perinatally(But NOT Breast milk)
What group of people should be tested for HCV? Those who received a blood transfusion prior to July 1992
How is HCV treated? 1. Antiviral therapy 2. Liver Transplant
Hepatic malignancies are typically secondary tumors that metastasize from what sites? 1. Colon 2. Rectum 3. Stomach 4. Pancreas 5. Esophagus 6. Lung 7. Breast
What is the name of a primary malignancy which is commonly associated with ETOH,HBV,and HCV? Hepatocarcinoma
Identify the signs and symptoms of a liver malignancy? 1. WT Loss 2. RUQ Abdominal Mass 3. RUQ Abdominal Pain
What methods are used to confirm Dx of liver malignancy? 1. Alphafetoprotein Blood Test(AFP) 2. Liver Bx
What is the prognosis for liver malignancy? Poor
What is the name for a condition of inflammation of the gall bladder? Cholecystitis
How is Cholecystitis commonly caused? Obstruction due to cholelithiasis(gall stones)
Cholelithiasis is AKA? Biliary Calculi
What factors increase the incidence of cholelithiasis? 1. Postpartum women 2. Use of BCP's 3. DM 4. Cirrhosis 5. Pancreatitis
Name the signs and symptoms of Cholelithiasis? 1. Right rib cage pain which radiates to the right shoulder(esp. after high-fat meal) 2. Chills 3. Pyrexia 4. N&V 5. Jaundice
Confirmation of Cholelithiasis Dx is made by? 1. GB ultrasound 2. Hepatobiliary scan(HIDA) 3. ERCP (Endosopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatogrophy) 4. EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasound) 5. MRC (Magnetic Resonance Cholangiogram)
Identify the treatments for Cholelithiasis? 1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (before perforation occurs) 2. Laparoscopic Cholelithectomy(if stones are present in CBD)
What is Pancreatitis? Inflammation of the pancreas
Pancreatitis is commonly associated with what in men? Alcoholism
Pancreatitis is commonly associated with GB disease in who? Women
What disease can cause pancreatic enzymes to activate prematurely? Pancreatitis
What does activated pancreatic enzymes do to the pancreas? Digests(dissolves)the pancreas
List the pancreatic enzymes? 1. Trypsin 2. Chymotrypsin 3. Lipase 4. Amylase
What can confirm the diagnosis of pancreatitis? High levels of pancreatic enzymes (especially Amylase)
What are the signs and symptoms of pancreatitis? 1. Severe Abdominal Pain 2. N&V 3. Jaundice
True or False: Pancreatitis can result in death? TRUE
Risk factors for a pancreatic malignancy include? 1. Male gender 2. Smoking 3. High protein and High fat diets 4. Alcohol 5. DM
Identify the signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy? 1. Severe Abdominal Pain 2. Anorexia 3. WT Loss 4. Clay-colored Stools 5. Jaundice
Dx of a pancreatic malignancy is confirmed with? 1. CT or MRI or PET 2. Bx
Why is the Px for pancreatic malignancy very poor? Due to early metastasis
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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