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Cells and Tissues

Macromolecules of the Cell

What make up the amino acids in a protein? - 20 a.a. in protein - Peptide bond - classfied based on unique functional group (R grp) - only L- form stereoisomer found in proteins
Peptide bond a covalent bond b/t amine grp of one a.a. and carboxyl grp of next a.a. --- ex: N--COOH
Nonpolar Hydrophobic amino acid 9 a.a., mostly lacking O and N in functional group (found on inside of protein molecule)
Polar (hydrophilic) Uncharged a.a. 6 a.a. (found on outside of protein)
Polar (hydrophilic) Charged a.a. 2 acidic aa and 3 basic aa
What is a Polypeptide? chain of a.a. joined by peptide bones; 2) formed in specific order for each polypeptide
The process that Polypeptides undergo? translation = protein synthesis (mRNA --> polypeptide)
Proteins are composed of what? 1) Monomeric - single polypeptide; 2) multimeric - multiple polypeptides
How many levels of organization are in a protein? 4 {primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structure)
What is the primary structure of a protein made of? based on a.a. sequence
What is the secondary structure of a protein made of? alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet, determined by H bonding w/in polypeptide
What is the tertiary structure of a protein made of? long-distance interactions w/in polypeptide due to H bonds and disulfide bonds
What is the quarternary structure of a protein made of? interaction of multiple polypeptides to form multimeric structure
What are the functions of protein? 1. enzymes, 2. structural, 3. motor, 4. transport, 5. storage, 6. signal, 7. receptors, 8. regulate gene expression
What are the characterisitcs of a lipid? 1. hydrophobic, 2. soluble in nonpolar solvents, 3. mostly hydrocarbon chains containing C and H, 4. some have polar regions (making it amphipathic sometimes)
What are the classes of lipids? 1. fatty acids, 2. triglycerides, 3. phospholipids, 4. sphingolipids, 5. glycolipids, 6. steroids, 7. terpenes
What are the functions of lipids? 1. energy storage, 2. membrane structure, 3. chemical signaling
What are triglycerides? a lipid; true fats for energy storage; 1 glycerol + 3 f.a.; triglycerides can be seen as fats (mostly SATURATED f.a.; solid @ rm temp) or oil (mostly UNSATURATED f.a.; liquid @ rm. temp)
What is a fatty acid? an unbranched hydrocarbon chain w/ carboxyl group
What kinds of fatty acids are there? 1) saturated fatty acid - all SINGLE bonds; 2) unsaturated fatty acid - one or more double bonds, changes shape
What are phospholipids? found in membranes; 2) phosphate grp replaces one f.a., 3) usually have alcohol (serine, ethanolamine, choline, or inositol) linked to phosphate, 4) polar head grp creates amphipathic structure
What are Sphingolipids? in membranes; 2) based on sphingosine (amine alcohol) instead of glycerol, adds a long chain f.a. to form a ceramide, 4) sphingolipid when polar group added to hydroxyl grp
What are Glycolipids? in membranes; 2) carbohydrate grp replaces phosphate grp, 3) amphipathic bc of sugar grp, 4) frequently recognition site of other molecules
What are Steroids? (3 + 1) three 6-carbon rings + one 5-carbon ring; 2) most common steroid = cholesterol: amphipathic bc of hydroxyl grp, found in membranes, source of all steroid hormones
What lipids are found in membranes? 1. phospholipids, 2. sphingolipids, 3. glycolipids, 4. cholesterol (kind of steroid)
What are Terpenes? aka isoprenoids, 1) derivatives of isoprene (5 C), used in synthesis of vit. A, co Q, carotenoid pigments
What are Polysaccharides? made of monomers of monosaccharides (simple sugars) joined by (alpha or beta) glycosidic bond
What is the storage molecule of polysaccharides? starch and glycogen
What is the structural molecule of polysaccharides? cellulose
What kind of monosaccharides are there? aldosugars, ketosugars, hexose sugars (6-C), pentose sugars (5-C)
What is the difference b/t aldosugars and ketosugars? aldosugar: sugar with TERMINAL carbonyl group; ketosugar- INTERNAL carbonyl group
What is the shape of hexose sugars? straight chain or ring form; most common is glucose
What makes up pentose sugars? component of nucleic acids (ex ribose and deoxyribose)
What are disaccharides? 2 monosaccharides linked by a GLYCOSIDIC BOND [ex: sucrose (glucose + fructose) and lactose (galactose + glucose)]
What are nucleic acids? polymers of nucleotides
What makes up a nucleotide? 1) nitrogenous base (purine, pyrimidines); 2) pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose); 3) phosphate (one or more phosphate grps)
What is the direction that nucleic acids synthesize? always 5' --> 3' direction
What are the uses of nucleic acids? 1) storage of genetic info (DNA); 2) expression of genetic info (RNA); 3) source of utilizeable chemical energy in cell
Created by: gracetheface85